Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass 3180 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,090,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 9,040,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 16000-24000 medium estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.4 - - -

Population justification: Perennou et al. (1994) estimated populations of 15,000 individuals in South Asia, and fewer than 10,000 individuals in South-East Asia, with an estimated total of 15,000-25,000 individuals. Wetlands International (2013) now estimate 25,000 individuals in South Asia and retain the estimate of 1-10,000 individuals in South-East Asia. This equates to approximately 25,000-35,000 individuals or 16,000-24,000 mature individuals. Recent work in South Asia has found that a large proportion of the population uses non-wetland areas meaning that a heavy reliance on counts from wetland areas may be underestimating the total population (G. Sundar in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: Both the populations in South Asia and South-East Asia are thought to be declining (Wetlands International 2013). The species is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing to hunting, drainage and pollution. However in northern India there has been no evidence for recent declines (G. Sundar in litt. 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Possibly Extinct Yes
India N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia V Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Vietnam Bai Boi
Vietnam Dat Mui
Vietnam U Minh Thuong
Vietnam Kien Luong
Vietnam Tram Chim
Vietnam Xuan Thuy
Vietnam Lang Sen
Vietnam Can Gio
Vietnam Nam Cat Tien
Vietnam Binh Dai
Vietnam Ba Tri
Thailand Lower Central Basin
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Preah Net Preah / Kra Lanh / Pourk
Cambodia Prek Toal
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay
Cambodia Stung / Prasat Balang
Cambodia Veal Srongae
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Northern Santuk
Cambodia Boeung Veal Samnap
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv
Laos Siphandon
Cambodia Sre Ambel
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach
Cambodia Prek Taek Sap
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Rangananthittu Bird Sanctuary
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
India Bhashkarpara
India Simbalbara National Park
India Hatnur Dam
India Nikol-Samadhiyala-Malan Wetlands Complex
India Tiruppadaimarudur Conservation Reserve
India Odiyur Lagoon
India Amangarh Reserve Forest
India Surajpur wetland

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mycteria leucocephala. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/07/2020.