Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-250,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). The population trend is decreasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).
Behaviour This species is strongly migratory, with different populations travelling on narrow or broad fronts depending on the location of their breeding and wintering grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species breeds between June and July (Hayman et al. 1986) after which it departs the breeding grounds from late-August or early-September (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It may forage singly or in flocks of one hundred or more individiuals, occurring in small groups of 3-7 individuals at stopover sites on the northward passage but in large flocks on the southward passage (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding It breeds on inland Arctic habitats including shrub tundra, montane tundra and stony well-drained uplands with mosses and lichens (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding The species occurs on the shores of lakes and rivers when on passage in the U.S.S.R. (Hayman et al. 1986), but outside of the breeding season in generally occupies coastal areas, foraging in coastal fields and prairies with short grass, ploughed fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996), coastal freshwater pools (Hayman et al. 1986), saltmarshes, beaches, open mud and sandflats (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and reefs (Hayman et al. 1986). It roosts on the same habitats used for foraging, as well as on exposed sandy beaches and exposed rocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of insects, molluscs, worms, crustaceans and spiders, although berries are also important during the breeding season on the Arctic tundra (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape positioned on a dry site amongst hummocks, lichen, Dryas spp. or moss (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species shows a high degree of nest-site fidelity and will return to the same nest cup or to within 100 m of nest-site of previous year (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pluvialis fulva. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2019.