Ou Psittirostra psittacea


Anderson, S. J.; Stone, C. P. 1993. Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest. Biological Conservation 63: 195-201.

Conant, S.; Pratt, H. D.; Shallenberger, R. J. 1998. Reflections on a 1975 expedition to the lost world of the Alaka'i and other notes on the natural history, systematics, and conservation of Kaua'i birds. Wilson Bulletin 110: 1-22.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. Available at: (Accessed: 15 November 2018).

Pratt, H.D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.

Scott, J.M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F.L.; Kepler, C.B. 1986. Forest bird communities of the Hawaiian Islands: Their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.

Snetsinger, T. J.; Reynolds, M. H.; Herrmann, C. M. 1998. 'O'u (Psittirostra psittacea) and Lana'i Hookbill (Dysmorodrepanis munroi). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 335-336, pp. 1-20. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1983. Kauai forest birds recovery plan. USFWS, Portland, USA.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds 2006

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Psittirostra psittacea. Downloaded from on 16/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/01/2021.