Osprey Pandion haliaetus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 298,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 331,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-1200000 medium estimated 2021
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.67 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 9,600-13,600 pairs, which equates to 19,200-27,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep). Europe forms approximately 14% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 137,000-200,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It has been listed as regionally endangered in North Africa, where the population has been estimated as lying between 130 and 146 mature individuals (Garrido et al. in prep). 

The Partners in Flight Science Committee (2021) estimate that the North American population is 400,000 mature individuals. They further estimate that the global population is 1,200,000 mature individuals. The population is placed in the band 100,000-1,200,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Over the last three generations (29 years), there has been a 108% increase in the species' population in North America (Pardieck et al. 2019). Other estimates give a much sharper increase between 1965 and 2007 (1,100% increase over 40 years, equating to a 84.2% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species' range in North America. The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International in prep). In North Africa, the population decreased sharply in recent decades, with a reported 35.7% decline in Morocco between 1990 and 2013 (Monti et al. 2013), though the population is now believed to be stable (Garrido et al. in prep). The species also appears to be undergoing a decline in India (State of India's Birds 2021). Overall, the species' global population is estimated to be increasing.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Monaco N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Cape Greco
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Carska bara
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Cyprus Akhna dam
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Lobe lake area
Latvia Daudzeva fishponds and Aklais bog
Latvia Augstroze
Latvia Mangene forest
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Zvarde forest
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Minho and Coura estuaries
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Belgium De Dijlevallei
Belgium De Maten
Belgium Vijverkomplex van Midden Limburg
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode
Belgium Vallei van de Zwarte Beek
Belgium Ronde Put
Belgium Krekengebied
Belgium Zwin
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Moldova Congaz – Taraclia Lakes
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Lake Dättern
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Åsnen
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Dannskär – Örskär Islands
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Janów forests
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Insko Site
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Vodlozero
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Watershed of the Rivers Strelna and Varzuga
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Pereluchski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Russia (European) Voroninski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Chafarinas Islands
Spain Cape Pinar
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Tarifa
Spain Ceuta
Spain Los Gigantes coastal cliff
Spain Majona coast
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera
Spain Vallehermoso coast
Spain Frontera laurel forest
Spain Naos Bay-Hoya de Tacorón
Spain Western coast of El Hierro
Spain Salmor rocky islets
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Famara crag
Spain El Médano coast
Spain Island of Lobos
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Bodakivs'ke marsh
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Pechenezhskoe reservoir
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Arjuzanx
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Brenne centrale
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Boucle de Moisson
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Etang et Forêt de Villefermoy
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang des Landes
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etang de Capestang
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses
France Vallée de la Garonne : Boussens à Carbonne
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallée de la Garonne : méandre de Grisolles
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Crau
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Basse vallée du Var
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Galloway Forest Park
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Piave river
Italy River Biferno
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Mount Conero
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Lake Maggiore
Italy Maritime Alps
Poland Slowinska Site
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
Denmark Arresø
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Flyndersø and Stubbergård Lake
Denmark Salten Langsø
Georgia Kolkheti
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Vorma
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Sweden Tärnan – Riala
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Serrahn
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Spreewald
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Stechlin
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Heerter See
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Reichlos pond
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Feldberg-Woldegk terminal moraine
Norway Setesdal valley (southern part)
Norway Lake Vansjø
Norway Ankerfjella
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Turkey Central Black Sea Coast
Russia (European) Zilairskoye Prisakmar'ye
Russia (European) Ufimskoye plateau
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Pavlovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Shaitan-Tau ridge
Russia (European) Uryuk
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Western coast of Beloye lake
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake
Russia (European) Ivinski flood-plain (Verkhnesvirskoye reservoir)
Russia (European) Watershead of Kama and Porysh rivers
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Narva reservoir
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Estonia Karula
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Misso
Estonia Tudu
Estonia Rubina
Russia (Central Asian) Middle reaches of the Chulym river
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shie Chertany Lake
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Podozerskie open pits
Russia (Central Asian) Turina mountain
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of river Irtysh near village Atak
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Latvia Abava valley
Latvia Daugava river at Kaibala
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Moricsala and Viskuzu sala
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Ovisi
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Pape
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Lielais and Pemmas bogs
Latvia Lake Lielauce
Latvia Mezole
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Latvia Razna
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Portugal Mondego Estuary
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
France Etang de Biguglia
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Iles Sanguinaires
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Forêt de la Reine
France Gorges du Gardon
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Vallée de la Garonne : Palayre et environs
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Iles d'Hyères
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Val de Saône
France Basse Ardêche
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
France Forêt de Chaux
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
Bahamas Graham's Harbour
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Pelymsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Canada Lakeland
Canada Lac La Biche
Canada South Thompson River
Canada Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area
Canada Restigouche River Estuary
Canada Tabusintac Lagoon and River Estuary
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada Holiday Beach / Big Creek CA
Canada Luther Marsh
Canada Petite Île Sainte-Geneviève
Canada Tadoussac
Canada Kazan Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sheedvar island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Faror islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Qatar Shara'awh island
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas Goulding Cay Wild Bird Reserve
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay
Bahamas Long Rock, Hawkfish Rock and Booby Cay
Bahamas South Beach Tidal Flats
Bahamas Salt Cay
Bahamas Driggs Hill to Mars Bay
Bahamas Stafford Creek to Andros Town
Qatar Khor al-Udeid
Bahamas Booby Island
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
St Lucia Castries and Dennery Waterworks Reserve and Marquis
Antigua and Barbuda Wallings Forest
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Costa Rica Kekoldi
Bahamas Mangrove Cay
Puerto Rico (to USA) Cordillera Central
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine River Tysa Valley
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Djibouti Les Sept Frères
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
St Lucia Pitons (Qualibou and Canaries)
St Lucia Point Sables
St Lucia Iyanola and Grande Anses, Esperance and Fond D'ors
St Lucia Mandelé Protected Landscape
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Sweden Lake Lim
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Pasleka river valley
Italy River Sesia heronries
Italy Ticino river
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Mirachowo Forest
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Virgin Islands (to USA) John Brewer's Bay
Poland Notec Forest
Italy Grigne
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Slonne Mountains
Bahamas Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
Netherlands Haringvliet
Bahrain Hawar Islands
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Cuba Siboney - Juticí
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands De Wieden
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Italy Lake Massaciuccoli
Guyana Ireng River
Guyana Maparri - Kanuku Mountains
Guyana North Rupununi - Karanambu Ranch
Guyana Crane Pond- Rupununi River
Guyana North-west Coastline
Taiwan, China Kaomei Wetlands
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Belarus Čyrvony Bor
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Vetluga floodplain in the Nizhni Novgorod region
Russia (European) Bryn'
Russia (European) Saraly
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Lukh and Myt villages
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Saudi Arabia Umm al-Qamari
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Aper Tief
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Aschauteiche and Südheide
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Malxe lowlands / Lakomaer Teiche
Germany Military training area Grafenwöhr
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Warnow with Göwe and Mildenitz
Germany Mönchsee
Germany Western shore of Lake Müritz
Germany Stromberg
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Untermain
Germany Zschornoer Heide
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Klietzer Heide
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Oswin site
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Podedworze Reservoir
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Turek Site
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Slovenia Črete
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Belarus Braslav lakes
Bahamas Kemp Cay to Pigeon Cay
Bahamas Joulter Cays
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
Moldova Dniester River between Naslavcea - Soroca
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatski
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Kenya Boni and Dodori National Reserves
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Norway Lake Storsjøen
Denmark Gribskov Area
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Marstal Bugt and the coast of south-west Langeland
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Morocco Merja Bargha
Morocco Merja Halloufa
Morocco Merja Zerga
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba
Morocco Barrage Idriss Premier
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Barrage Mohamed V
Morocco Sidi Moussa - Oualidia
Morocco Barrage al Massira
Morocco Aguelmane de Sidi Ali Ta'nzoult
Morocco Barrage al Mansour Ad-Dhabi
Morocco Tamri and Imsouane
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Morocco Pointe d'Awfist
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Lahemaa
United Arab Emirates Sir Bani Yas Islands
Sweden Muddus
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Mauritania Chott Boul
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Colombia Laguna de la Cocha
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete
Colombia Bojonawi

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4100 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pandion haliaetus. Downloaded from on 26/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/03/2023.