Osprey Pandion haliaetus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 298,000,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 331,000,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 100000-1200000 mature individuals medium estimated 2021
Population trend increasing - estimated -
Generation length 9.67 years - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 9,600-13,600 pairs, which equates to 19,200-27,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep). Europe forms approximately 14% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 137,000-200,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It has been listed as regionally endangered in North Africa, where the population has been estimated as lying between 130 and 146 mature individuals (Garrido et al. in prep). 

The Partners in Flight Science Committee (2021) estimate that the North American population is 400,000 mature individuals. They further estimate that the global population is 1,200,000 mature individuals. The population is placed in the band 100,000-1,200,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Over the last three generations (29 years), there has been a 108% increase in the species' population in North America (Pardieck et al. 2019). Other estimates give a much sharper increase between 1965 and 2007 (1,100% increase over 40 years, equating to a 84.2% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species' range in North America. The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International in prep). In North Africa, the population decreased sharply in recent decades, with a reported 35.7% decline in Morocco between 1990 and 2013 (Monti et al. 2013), though the population is now believed to be stable (Garrido et al. in prep). The species also appears to be undergoing a decline in India (State of India's Birds 2021). Overall, the species' global population is estimated to be increasing.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native
Angola extant native
Anguilla (to UK) extant native
Antigua and Barbuda extant native
Argentina extant native
Armenia extant native yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant native
Australia extant native yes
Austria extant native
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahamas extant native
Bahrain extant native yes yes
Bangladesh extant native
Barbados extant native
Belarus extant native yes yes
Belgium extant native yes
Belize extant native
Benin extant native
Bermuda (to UK) extant vagrant
Bhutan extant native
Bolivia extant native
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) extant native
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native
Botswana extant native
Brazil extant native
Brunei extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes yes
Burkina Faso extant native
Burundi extant native
Cambodia extant native
Cameroon extant native
Canada extant native yes yes
Cape Verde extant native
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant native
Central African Republic extant native
Chad extant native
Chile extant native
China (mainland) extant native yes
Colombia extant native
Congo extant native
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native
Costa Rica extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant native
Croatia extant native yes
Cuba extant native
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant native
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Djibouti extant native
Dominica extant native
Dominican Republic extant native
Ecuador extant native
Egypt extant native
El Salvador extant native
Equatorial Guinea extant native
Eritrea extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Eswatini extant native
Ethiopia extant native
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes yes
French Guiana extant native
Gabon extant native
Gambia extant native
Georgia extant native yes yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Ghana extant native
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Grenada extant native
Guadeloupe (to France) extant native yes
Guam (to USA) extant native yes
Guatemala extant native
Guinea extant native
Guinea-Bissau extant native
Guyana extant native
Haiti extant native
Honduras extant native
Hong Kong (China) extant native
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant vagrant
India extant native yes
Indonesia extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes yes
Jamaica extant native
Japan extant native yes
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kenya extant native
Kuwait extant native yes yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native
Laos extant native
Latvia extant native yes yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Lesotho extant native
Liberia extant native
Libya extant native
Liechtenstein extant native
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native
Malawi extant native
Malaysia extant native
Maldives extant vagrant
Mali extant native
Malta extant native
Martinique (to France) extant native
Mauritania extant native
Mexico extant native
Micronesia, Federated States of extant native yes
Moldova extant native yes yes
Monaco extant native
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Montserrat (to UK) extant native
Morocco extant native
Mozambique extant native
Myanmar extant native
Namibia extant native
Nepal extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
New Caledonia (to France) extant native yes
Nicaragua extant native
Niger extant native
Nigeria extant native
North Korea extant native
North Macedonia extant native yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Norway extant native yes yes
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native
Palau extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Panama extant native
Papua New Guinea extant native yes
Paraguay extant native
Peru extant native
Philippines extant native
Poland extant native yes yes
Portugal extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant native
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Rwanda extant native
São Tomé e Príncipe extant native
Saudi Arabia extant native yes yes
Senegal extant native
Serbia extant native yes
Seychelles extant vagrant
Sierra Leone extant native
Singapore extant native
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) extant native
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
Solomon Islands extant native yes
Somalia extant native
South Africa extant native
South Korea extant native
South Sudan extant native yes
Spain extant native yes yes
Sri Lanka extant native
St Barthelemy (to France) extant native
St Kitts and Nevis extant native
St Lucia extant native
St Martin (to France) extant native
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines extant native
Sudan extant native
Suriname extant native
Sweden extant native yes yes
Switzerland extant native
Syria extant native yes
Taiwan, China extant native
Tajikistan extant native
Tanzania extant native
Thailand extant native
Timor-Leste extant native yes
Togo extant native
Trinidad and Tobago extant native
Tunisia extant native
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant native
Uganda extant native
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) extant native
Uruguay extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native
Venezuela extant native
Vietnam extant native
Virgin Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Western Sahara extant native
Yemen extant native yes yes
Zambia extant native
Zimbabwe extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Lake Åsnen
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Spreewald
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Estonia Karula
Estonia Misso
Estonia Rubina
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Latvia Moricsala and Viskuzu sala
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Razna
Portugal Mondego Estuary
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Lewitz
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Stechlin
Germany Heerter See
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Aschauteiche and Südheide
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Stromberg
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Untermain
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Klietzer Heide
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Notec Forest
Slovenia Črete
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Cape Pinar
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Famara crag
Spain Los Gigantes coastal cliff
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera
Spain Western coast of El Hierro
Spain Naos Bay-Hoya de Tacorón
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
Norway Setesdal valley (southern part)
Norway Ankerfjella
Norway Lake Vansjø
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4100 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pandion haliaetus. Downloaded from on 08/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/12/2023.