LC
Osprey Pandion haliaetus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 228,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 257,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor estimated 2013
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.6 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 8,400-12,300 pairs, which equates to 16,700-24,600 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 14% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 119,000-176,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. Partners in Flight Science Committee (2013) estimate the global population as 500,000 individuals which equates to 333,000 mature individuals. The population is placed in the band 100,000-499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (1,100% increase over 40 years, equating to a 84.2% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Monaco N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Cuba Siboney - Juticí
Estonia Karula
Estonia Misso
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Rubina
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Pointe de Grave
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Aschauteiche and Südheide
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Heerter See
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Klietzer Heide
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Spreewald
Germany Stechlin
Germany Stromberg
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Untermain
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Guyana Shell Beach
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Moricsala and Viskuzu sala
Latvia Razna
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Norway Ankerfjella
Norway Lake Vansjø
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Setesdal valley (southern part)
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
Portugal Mondego Estuary
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Slovenia Črete
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Cape Pinar
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Famara crag
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Los Gigantes coastal cliff
Spain Naos Bay-Hoya de Tacorón
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Western coast of El Hierro
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Lake Åsnen
Sweden Lake Lim
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4100 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Non-trivial Historical
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pandion haliaetus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/11/2019.