EN
Oriental Stork Ciconia boyciana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) A2c+3c+4c; C2a(i,ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered C2a(ii)
2007 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 941,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 5,830,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.1 - - -

Population justification: The population was estimated at 3,000 individuals by Xinzhong (1999) and Zhiyong (1999). The 2005 Yangtze waterbird survey recorded 1,194 individuals (M. Barter in litt. 2006). National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea and < c.100 breeding pairs and < c.50 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). Overall then, the population is likely to number 1,000 to 2,499 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Significant declines in breeding birds have been reported in Russia: its overall population is suspected to be decreasing rapidly, in line with levels of deforestation and the drainage of wetlands for agricultural development.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh V Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Philippines V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Huma He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xunbiela He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Maoshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Fenglin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hala Hai
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing Lazi Siberian Tiger Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Niuxintaobao
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi
China (mainland) Changbai Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longtan Reservoir
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Wafangdian Fuzhou Wan
China (mainland) Zhuanghe Coast
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Orqohan
China (mainland) Nuomin - Bila He - Dayangshu
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Bayan Obo Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ordos Taolimiao - Alashanwan Haizi
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidagang Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yuncheng Swan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shishankou Reservoir
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sihong Wetland of Hongze Hu
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Anhui)
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes)
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hong Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Jiangkou Niaozhou Nature Reserve
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Daedong Bay
North Korea Ongjin Bay
North Korea Kangryong field
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo
North Korea Mount Chilbo
South Korea Daeseongdong and Panmunjeom marshes
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
South Korea Upo swamp
Mongolia Buir Lake
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
Philippines Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins
Russia (Asian) Sikhote-Alin' Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Ul'banskiy bay
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake
South Korea Geumho-ho lake
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
China (mainland) Qilihai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Guanting Reservoir
Taiwan, China Yieliu
Taiwan, China Watzuwei Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dazhanhe Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Eastern tidal flat of Nanhui
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan
China (mainland) Huanzidong
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Jiangsu)
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Tian'ezhou
China (mainland) Yuncheng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zoigê (Ruo'ergai) Marshes
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Ciconia boyciana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2021.