Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,700,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be the commonest Asian hornbill (del Hoyo et al. 2001). During a national population survey in 2004-2008 in Thailand, the population density was estimated at 21 individuals/km2 in Khao Yai National Park, while abundance indices in other areas ranged from 0.01-0.9 individuals/km2 in eight forest complexes (Poonswad et al. 2013). In eastern Malaysia, population density estimates range from 2.22 individuals/km2 in Tawan Hills to 19.65 individuals/km2 in Pulau Tiga Park (Lakim and Biun 2005). In Kuala Lompat in Peninsular Malaysia, the population density is 1 individual/km2 (Medway and Wells 1971).

Long-term surveys conducted at five protected areas in Bangladesh since 2005 indicate a gradual decline in population density. Twenty years ago, the species used to occur in 14 protected areas surveyed, but was recently found only in eight of these, of which all but one show population decreases (S. U. Chowdhury in litt. 2019).

In India, a study in 2007-2008 in Arunachal Pradesh found densities of around 19 individuals/km2 in Pakke Tiger Reserve, which dropped to five individuals/km2 in the less protected adjoining Reserved Forests (Dasgupta and Hilaluddin 2012). In a 2013 study, the density estimate was 14 individuals/km2 in the Pakke Tiger Reserve (Naniwadekar and Datta unpubl. data). Despite it being more common in secondary forest, the species was detected in only three of 14 sites surveyed, although reported as present in nine sites by locals and not seen in the previous five years at two sites (Naniwadekar et al. 2015) in a survey in Arunachal Pradesh. In a survey across five states in north-east India, the the average habitat-use probability of the species in the 370 sampled grids was 0.69 (SE 0.01). Of a total of 3,153 grids (covering 154,497 km2), the number of grids with relatively high probability of habitat use (≥ 0.75) was 1,167 (57,183 km2) (Naniwadekar et al. 2016).
In Singapore, the species is breeding in Pulau Ubin, Changi, Pasir Ris Park and a few other locations. The population is increasing in Singapore, benefiting from green corridors. A study carried out in 2018 showed that the distribution area increased from four subzone areas in 2004-2006 to 61 subzone areas in 2016-2018 based on compiled sightings (per B. C. Strange in litt. 2020).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Anthracoceros albirostris. Downloaded from on 09/05/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 09/05/2021.