Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 22000 medium estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number at least 22,000 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to over 33,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification: This species is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline, owing to pollution, drainage and hunting.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau U Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extinct Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Vietnam U Minh Thuong
Vietnam Tram Chim
Vietnam Bac Lieu
Vietnam Chua Hang
Vietnam Ca Mau
Vietnam Yok Don
Vietnam Ya Lop
Vietnam Cat Loc
Vietnam Nam Cat Tien
Vietnam Binh Dai
Sri Lanka Yala
Thailand Ban Khlong Marakor Tai
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Myanmar Hukaung Valley
Indonesia Tanjung Puting
Indonesia Rawa Tulang Bawang
Indonesia Pulau Dua
Cambodia Preah Net Preah / Kra Lanh / Pourk
Cambodia Prek Toal
Cambodia Dei Roneat
Laos Xe Khampho / Xe Pian
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla
Laos Dong Khanthung
Laos Xe Kong Plains
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru
Cambodia Lower Stung Sen
Cambodia Mekong River from Kratie to Lao PDR
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment
Cambodia Basset Marsh
Cambodia Boeung Veal Samnap
Cambodia Bassac Marsh
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv
Laos Siphandon
Myanmar Tanai River
Timor-Leste Mount Paitchau and Lake Iralalaro
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Watrap Periakulam and Virakasamuthrakulam
Indonesia Muara Gembong - Tanjung Sedari
Cambodia Snoul / Keo Sema / O Reang
Nepal Jagdishpur Reservoir
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Ghodaghodi Lake
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
India Bhashkarpara
India Loktak Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anhinga melanogaster. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/08/2022.