LC
Orange-flanked Bush-robin Tarsiger cyanurus



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, though in Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 20,200-56,500 pairs, which equates to 40,300-113,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), with Europe forming c.5% of the global range. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The small European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Distribution and population

Ecology

This species breeds in Siberian taiga forest, with a preference for old-growth mossy moist spruce (Picea) tracts with fallen trees and sparse undergrowth, often on hilly slopes, but also pine (Pinus) and mixed forests with birch (Betula) and rhododendron. Breeding occurs from May to August in Russia and May to July in Mongolia and China, from the end of June to mid-August in North Korea and from May to August in Japan. It lays three to seven eggs. The nest is a cup of grass, moss, ferns, twigs and roots, which is lined with hair, feathers, fine grass and sometimes pine needles. It is set in the hollow of a tree, among tree roots, under a rotten log or in a hole in a bank or steep slope. The diet is not well studied but is thought to be mostly invertebrates, especially insects as well as fruits and seeds when it is not breeding. The nominate race is migratory throughout virtually all of its range, though some remain all year in Japan (Collar and de Juana 2015).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species within the European part of its range.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Symes, A.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Tarsiger cyanurus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2022.