CR
Orange-bellied Parrot Neophema chrysogaster



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2ace; C2a(i,ii); D A2ace; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D A2ace; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C1+2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered A2ace; C2a(i,ii); D
2016 Critically Endangered A2ace; C2a(i,ii); D
2015 Critically Endangered A2ace;C2a(i,ii);D
2012 Critically Endangered A2ace;C2a(i,ii);D
2011 Critically Endangered A2a,c,e; C2a(ii); D1
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,800 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 134,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 30 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20-25 good observed 2016
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.9 - - -

Population justification: Surveys in early 2010 found fewer than 50 birds at Melaleuca and found no birds at any other historical breeding areas. The wild population was therefore estimated to contain fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals in 2010. The total wild population at the end of the 2015/16 season was only 35 (M. Holdsworth in litt. 2016) and has decreased to 14 in 2017. The sex ratio is highly skewed (12 males and 2 females) (D. Stojanovic in litt. 2017). Captive breeding programmes have been carried out since 1986 to restock the wild population, with more than 300 individuals in different breeding centres in Australia and Tasmania (BirdLife Australia in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: The overall population, which was estimated to number around 150 individuals in 2005, has since undergone a rapid decline (confirmed by data from both breeding and wintering sites): surveys in early 2010 found fewer than 50 birds at Melaleuca and no birds at any other historical breeding areas. The wild population was therefore estimated to contain fewer than 50 individuals in 2010, and extinction in the wild was predicted to take place within 3-5 years (Sims 2010). The population has steadily declined since and was unlikely to have exceeded 25 mature individuals in 2016/17 (M. Holdsworth in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Anderson Inlet
Australia Bellarine Wetlands
Australia Coorong
Australia Corner Inlet
Australia Discovery Bay to Piccaninnie Ponds
Australia Hunter Island Group
Australia King Island
Australia Lake Hawdon System
Australia Lakes Alexandrina and Albert
Australia Melaleuca to Birchs Inlet
Australia North-west Tasmanian Coast
Australia Port Fairy to Warrnambool
Australia Robbins Passage and Boullanger Bay
Australia Shallow Inlet
Australia Swan Bay and Port Phillip Bay Islands
Australia Werribee and Avalon
Australia Western Port
Australia Yambuk

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Carduelis carduelis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Chloris chloris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus, Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Passer domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Petaurus breviceps Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sturnus vulgaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Vulpes vulpes, Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Neophema chrysogaster. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/02/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/02/2019.