Ocellated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus ocellatus


Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 8.6-9.3% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (14 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Race X. o. perplexus occurs in western Amazonia, south of Amazon, in northeastern Peru (east from lower Rio Ucayali, possibly from Rio Huallaga) and western Brazil (east at least to Rio Tefé, probably to Rio Purús, and south to southeastern Acre); recorded also in extreme northeastern Bolivia (Pando). Race X. o. ocellatus is patchily distributed in Amazonian Brazil, south of Amazon, from Rio Purús east to left bank of lower Rio Tapajós.


Chiefly evergreen forest. At most sites occurs in tall terra firme forest, but at some mostly near rivers or swamps (várzea at some sites) or in forests associated with sandy soils. Frequents primarily interior of mature forest, less often in disturbed forest, second growth (including younger growth), and forest edge. Patchy distribution possibly related to habitat preferences that are poorly known, and perhaps geographically variable. Chiefly Amazonian lowlands, mostly below 500 m.


Text account compilers
Wheatley, H., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Xiphorhynchus ocellatus. Downloaded from on 25/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2021.