VU
Ocellated Quail Cyrtonyx ocellatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A3cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A3cd
2012 Vulnerable A3cd
2010 Vulnerable A3c,d
2008 Near Threatened B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 233,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 medium estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: Although a full population census is yet to be completed, the species is thought to be rare at all known sites in Guatemala, there are few recent records from Mexico, Honduras and Nicaragua, and no recent records from El Salvador. Considering this, the population is thought to hold fewer than 10,000 individuals (K. Eisermann in litt. 2010), hence is best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, which roughly equates to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species is thought to have undergone a moderately rapid decline in the past decade. However, this rate of decline is projected to increase to 30-49% over the next 10 years (three generations), primarily due to habitat loss and hunting in its stronghold of Guatemala as a result of human population increases and opencast mining (Eitniear and Eisermann 2009, K. Eisermann in litt. 2010).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Guatemala Atitlan
Guatemala Tacana - Tajumulco (part of Guatemalan/Mexican Pacific Coastal Mountains AZE)
Guatemala Yalijux
Honduras Celaque
Honduras Cerro Azul Meambar
Honduras Cusuco
Honduras Güisayote
Honduras La Muralla
Honduras La Tigra
Honduras Montaña de Yoro
Honduras Sierra de Agalta
Honduras Valle de Agalta
Mexico Cerros de Chalchihuitán
Mexico Mountains of the North of Chiapas
Mexico Sierra de Miahuatlán
Mexico The Tacaná
Mexico The Triunfo
Nicaragua Dipilto-Jalapa Mountain Range

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Altitude 750 - 3050 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Cyrtonyx ocellatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/11/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/11/2018.