LC
Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Oenanthe oenanthe and O. seebohmi (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as O. oenanthe following AERC TAC (2003); AOU (1998 and supplements); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass 31 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 79,500,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 19,300,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 10000000-500000000 mature individuals medium estimated 2015
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 4.1 years - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 5,280,000-15,800,000 pairs, which equates to 10,600,000-31,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). There are an estimated 100-10,000 breeding pairs and 50-1,000 individuals on migration in China, and 100-100,000 breeding pairs and 50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). It is likely that the global population falls into the band 10,000,000-500,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native yes
Andorra extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant native yes
Barbados extant vagrant
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Benin extant native yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant vagrant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) extant vagrant
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Botswana extant vagrant
Bulgaria extant native yes
Burkina Faso extant native yes
Burundi extant native yes
Cameroon extant native yes
Canada extant native yes
Cape Verde extant native yes
Central African Republic extant native yes
Chad extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Comoros extant vagrant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant vagrant
Croatia extant native yes
Cuba extant vagrant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant vagrant
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Egypt extant native yes
Eritrea extant native yes
Estonia extant native yes
Ethiopia extant native yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes
Gabon extant vagrant
Gambia extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Ghana extant native yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant native yes
Guinea extant native yes
Guinea-Bissau extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant native yes
India extant vagrant
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes yes
Iraq extant native yes yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant native yes yes
Japan extant vagrant
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kenya extant native yes
Kuwait extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes yes
Liberia extant native yes
Libya extant native yes
Liechtenstein extant native yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Malawi extant native yes
Malaysia extant vagrant
Maldives extant vagrant
Mali extant native yes
Malta extant native yes
Mauritania extant native
Mexico extant vagrant
Moldova extant native yes
Monaco extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native yes
Nepal extant vagrant
Netherlands extant native yes
Niger extant native yes
Nigeria extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant vagrant
Palestine extant native yes
Philippines extant vagrant
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant vagrant
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Rwanda extant native yes
San Marino extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Senegal extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Seychelles extant vagrant
Sierra Leone extant native yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) extant vagrant
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
Somalia extant native yes
South Korea extant vagrant
South Sudan extant native yes
Spain extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant vagrant yes
Sudan extant native yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes yes
Tajikistan extant native yes
Tanzania extant native yes
Togo extant native yes
Tunisia extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Uganda extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes
Western Sahara extant native yes
Yemen extant native yes yes
Zambia extant native yes
Zimbabwe extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Oenanthe oenanthe. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/northern-wheatear-oenanthe-oenanthe on 25/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 25/02/2024.