Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata


Taxonomic note
Spatula clypeata (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Anas.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 39,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 187,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4300000-4700000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 6,500,000-7,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 4,300,000-4,700,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 170,000-233,000 pairs, which equates to 340,000-466,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be increasing and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the species has undergone a large, significant increase over the last 40 years (based on Partners in Flight; A. Panjabi in litt. 2017). The European population trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador V Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Polynesia V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea V Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa V Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Algeria Lac des Oiseaux / Garaet et Touyour
Algeria Lac Fetzara
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Lac Tonga
Algeria Marais de Mekhada
Algeria Sebkhet Djendli
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Belgium Bourgoyen-Ossemeersen
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Zegge
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
Czechia Lednicke rybniky ponds (Lednice fish-ponds)
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Denmark Hovvig
Denmark Rømø
Egypt El Malaha
Egypt Lake Burullus
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Lake Nasser
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Brenne centrale
France Camargue
France Cap Gris-nez
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France La Dombes
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Marais de Brière
France Marais de Mazerolles-Petit Mars
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Alfsee
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Dümmer
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hauke-Haien Koog
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Uckertal / Unteruckersee
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
India Kanjli Lake
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
India Sulekere Lake
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Ireland Lough Rea
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Zevulun valley
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kenya Dandora ponds
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mauritania Chott Boul
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Mexico Lago de Texcoco
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Morocco Barrage al Massira
Morocco Merja Zerga
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Zoommeer
Niger Lassouri - Karandi wetlands
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Danube Delta
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Rybinsk reservoir
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Pedro Muñoz-Manjavacas endorreic lagoons
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Tanzania Lake Manyara
Tunisia Garaet Mabtouh
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Tunisia Sebkhet Sejoumi
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Nutrient loads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Spatula clypeata. Downloaded from on 22/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/02/2020.