EN
Northern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes moseleyi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Banks, J.; Van Buren, A.; Cherel, Y.; Whitfield, J. B. 2006. Genetic evidence for three species of Rockhopper Penguins Eudyptes chrysocome. Polar Biology 30(1): 61-67.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2acde+3cde+4acde A2acde+3cde+4acde; B2ab(v)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4acde
2012 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4acde
2010 Endangered A2a,c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4a,c,d,e
2008 Endangered A2a,c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4a,c,d,e
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,840,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 250 medium
Number of locations 7 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: Population trends are still poorly known due to the remote nature of these islands. The global population however is estimated at around 240,300 breeding pairs (Cuthbert 2013, TdC and RSPB unpubl. data) with the majority of breeding pairs being found on Gough Island and islands in the Tristan da Cunha group (68,000 pairs on Middle Island -2015-, 64,700 pairs on Gough -2006-, 16,000 pairs on Nightingale -2015-, 54,000 pairs on Inaccessible -2009- and 3600 pairs on Tristan da Cunha -2015- islands; Cuthbert 2013, RSPB and TdC unpubl. data). Numbers indicate that populations are still declining (TdC and RSPB unpubl. data). At the species’ two breeding locations in the Indian Ocean, Amsterdam (25,000 pairs, 1993) and St. Paul (9,000 pairs, 1993) islands numbers have been declining at an average rate of 3-4% since the early 1970s (CEBC-CNRS unpubl. data). Overall, recent population models indicate that over the past 37 years (three generations) the numbers of Northern Rockhopper Penguins have declined by 57% (Birdlife International 2010). At Amsterdam Island the decline over the past three generations reaches 74% (CEBC-CNRS unpubl. data).

Trend justification: Population trends are still poorly known due to the remote nature of these islands. Numbers indicate that populations are still declining (TdC and RSPB unpubl. data). At the species’ two breeding locations in the Indian Ocean, Amsterdam (25,000 pairs, 1993) and St. Paul (9,000 pairs, 1993) islands numbers have been declining at an average rate of 3-4% since the early 1970s (CEBC-CNRS unpubl. data). Overall, recent population models indicate that over the past 37 years (three generations) the numbers of Northern Rockhopper Penguins have declined by 57% (Birdlife International 2010). 


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
South Africa V Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
St Helena (to UK) Tristan Island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 170 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Unknown Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Named species - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Eudyptes moseleyi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.