Northern Pintail Anas acuta


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 41,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 160,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4700000-4800000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.8 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 7,100,000-7,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 4,700,000-4,800,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 210,000-269,000 pairs, which equates to 419,000-539,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). In North America, the species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years (77.3% decline over 40 years, equating to a 31% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count [Butcher and Niven 2007]), and in 2015 the population was estimated to be 24% below the 1955-2014 long-term average (Zimpfer et al. 2015). In Europe, the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 20.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) V Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana V Extant
Brazil V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Cook Islands V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Polynesia V Extant
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea V Extant
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tonga V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Algeria Barrage de la Cheffia
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Cameroon Lake Maga
Canada Big Piskwanish Point
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Chad Lake Chad
Chad Lake Fitri
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor)
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Fiilsø
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Cap Gris-nez
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France La Dombes
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais de Brière
France Marais de Mazerolles-Petit Mars
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Vallée de l'Aisne
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Hauke-Haien Koog
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
India Kanjli Lake
India Krishnarajasagar Reservoir
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
India Saman Bird Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dorudsan dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Japan Abukuma river
Japan Izunuma and nearby lakes
Japan Lake Hyoko
Japan Lakes Komuke and Shibunotsunai
Japan Mawarizeki and Sunazawa reservoir
Japan Mogamigawa estuary
Japan Otomonuma reservoir
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Latvia Irbe strait
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Lac Faguibine
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Séri
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Mauritania Rkîz
Mauritania Tâmourt en Na'âj
Mexico Babícora
Mexico Bahía de Ceuta-Cospita
Mexico Complejo de Humedales del Noroeste de Chihuahua
Mexico Corredor de Barrancas de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Niger Chiya wetland
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary
Philippines Candaba swamp
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Kronotskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) River Chernaya
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Upo swamp
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Ukraine Syvash Bay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
USA Active Delta (Mississippi River Birdsfoot Delta)
USA Atchafalaya Delta
USA Catahoula-Dewey Wills-Three Rivers
USA Lake Mattamuskeet - Swan Quarter
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anas acuta. Downloaded from on 02/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 02/04/2020.