Northern Parula Setophaga americana


Taxonomic note

Setophaga americana (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Parula following AERC TAC (2003); AOU (1998 & supplements); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); SACC (2005 & updates); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 9 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 6,670,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 6,650,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 18000000 mature individuals poor estimated 2019
Population trend increasing - estimated -
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 30% - - -
Generation length 1.93 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 18 million mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2019).

Trend justification: The species is increasing (Partners in Flight 2019; Rosenberg et al. 2019). Short-term trends suggest an increase of 30% over the past ten years (Pardieck et al. 2018).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Anguilla (to UK) extant native yes
Antigua and Barbuda extant native yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant vagrant yes
Bahamas extant native yes
Barbados extant native yes
Belize extant native yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant native yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) extant vagrant yes
Canada extant native yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Colombia extant vagrant yes
Costa Rica extant vagrant yes
Cuba extant native yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant vagrant yes
Dominica extant native yes
Dominican Republic extant native yes
El Salvador extant vagrant yes
France extant vagrant
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Grenada extant native yes
Guadeloupe (to France) extant native yes
Guatemala extant native yes
Haiti extant native yes
Honduras extant native yes
Iceland extant vagrant
Ireland extant vagrant
Jamaica extant native yes
Martinique (to France) extant native yes
Mexico extant native yes yes
Montserrat (to UK) extant native yes
Nicaragua extant native yes
Panama extant vagrant yes
Portugal extant vagrant
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant native yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) extant native yes
St Barthelemy (to France) extant native
St Kitts and Nevis extant native yes
St Lucia extant vagrant yes
St Martin (to France) extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant vagrant yes
Trinidad and Tobago extant vagrant yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant native yes
United Kingdom extant vagrant
USA extant native yes yes yes
Venezuela extant vagrant yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Setophaga americana. Downloaded from on 01/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/03/2024.