LC
Northern Long-eared Owl Asio otus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 80,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 99,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2200000-3700000 poor suspected 2021
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: Partners in Flight Science Committee (2020a) estimated the population in the USA and Canada to be c.150,000 individuals, and the global population to be c.520,000 individuals. The European population is estimated at 312,000-512,000 pairs, which equates to 624,000-1,030,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International In prep.). Europe forms approximately 28% of the global range, so the global population size is suspected to number 2,230,000-3,680,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: Trends in North America are not well known as local numbers rise and fall, but several studies suggest an overall decline, often attributed to loss of habitat (Marks et al. 2020). Analysis of results from the Christmas Bird Count suggest a decline of more than 50% since 1970 (Partners in Flight 2020b). In Europe the population size trend is unknown (BirdLife International In prep.).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Akstafa-chai valley
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Azerbaijan Ilisu area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Romania Dobron forest
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain River Moros
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Las Vueltas, Aguas Negras and Quebradas mountains
Spain Tigaiga slope
Spain Las Mercedes, Mina y Yedra, Aguirre, La Goleta and Pedro Alvarez mountains
Spain Mountain of Agua, gully of Los Cochinos and gully of Cuevas Negras
Spain Santa Trsula and La Victoria laurel forest
Spain Los Rodeos-La Esperanza
Spain Santo Domingo coastal cliffs
Spain Centinela mountain and La Esquina plain
Spain Step rocks of Hermigua and Agulo
Spain La Palma laurel forest
Spain El Canal y Los Tiles laurel forest
Spain Frontera laurel forest
Spain Nizdafe plains
Spain El Médano coast
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Montagne de la Serre
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Sacy
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Bois de Palayson, du Rouet et de Malvoisin
France Bois du Chapitre
France Plaine du Forez
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Poland Gorce mountains
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Rocky outcrops of river Uj
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
France Etang de Lindre
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Estuaire de la Canche
Russia (European) Ichalkovski forest
Russia (Central Asian) Ebeity lake
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (Central Asian) Tri Gusikhi
Canada Chilcotin Junction
Canada Leslie Street Spit
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Waldviertel
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Freiwald
Italy Dolomites
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine National Park Stara Guta
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Slovenia Pohorje
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane marginal resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Boreal suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2750 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Strix aluco Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Asio otus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022.