NT
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2abce+3bce+4abce
2015 Near Threatened A2abce+3bce+4abce
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 42,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 5,600,000-10,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012).  The European population is estimated at 1,590,000-2,580,000 pairs, which equates to 3,190,000-5,170,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015).  In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008); this is supported by recent data from Europe, suggesting the European population is decreasing by 30-49% in 27 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).  A strong decline is also reported for the European and western Asian population between 1988 and 2012, based on annual mid-winter counts (Nagy et al. 2014).  No recent trend data is available for the two other flyway populations (breeding in southern Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and northern China and wintering in southern and eastern Asia [Wetlands International 2015]).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominica V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Lake Kasonys and adjacent wetlands
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Islauzas fish-ponds
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Audru polder
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Relict lakes of southern Saaremaa
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Laukasoo bog
Estonia Ohepalu
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Lielais Kemeru bog
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Pape
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Moldova Royal Forest
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Drumcliff Bay and Ballintemple
Ireland Sheskinmore Lough
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Upper Barrow flood-plain
Ireland Kilcolman bog
Ireland Lough Mask
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Tysslingen
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Nietlice marshes
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Suskanski Bay of Kuybyshev Resrvoir
Spain La Serena
Spain River Moros
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall
Spain Villafáfila
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Solonyj Lyman lake
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Crau
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Zones agricoles de la Hardt
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Vallée du Fouzon
France Boucle de Moisson
France Etang de Lindre
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Marais de Mazerolles-Petit Mars
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Marais de Manteyer
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Ile de la Platière
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bodmin Moor
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Hornsea Mere
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Colonsay and Western Cliffs
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom New Forest
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Walmore Common
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Westwater Reservoir
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Cromdale Hills
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Upper Deeside Plantations
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Darnaway and Lethen Forest
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Tips of Corsemaul and Tom Mor
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Piave river
Italy Valli di Argenta
Poland Slowinski National Park
Czechia Dehtár pond
Czechia Poodri
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Carska bara
Slovakia Senné
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Vorma
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Machland
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Meadows on the lower Ill
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Ammersee
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Herbsleben ponds
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Spreewald
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Schlei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Terborg
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Aper Tief
Germany Old Picardie
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Fehntjer Tief
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Heerter See
Germany Dalum Wietmarscher swamp
Germany Georgsdorfer swamp
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Jammertal
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Lowlands of River Ems near Lathen
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Rotes Moor
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Western Negev
Syria Golan Heights
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Dayan Lake
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Japan Yahagigawa estuary
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Muraka
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Alabota
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Shartymka valley
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Mit'kino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Marjanovski part of Kamyshlovskaya valley
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Chairya
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Forêt de la Reine
France Etang du Bagnas
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (Central Asian) Busly lake
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskaya anabranch (Irtysh flood-plain)
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Rybachii Peninsula and Ushakovski bay
Russia (Central Asian) Akman lake
Russia (Central Asian) Altyr' lake
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Katai lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Divandareh/Zarrineh Owbatu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-i Gaz
Iran, Islamic Republic of Assadabad plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Freiwald
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Turkmenistan Mergen
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Russia (European) Olonets plain
Sweden Lake Lim
Netherlands Eilandspolder
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Dollart
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Lewitz
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Wesuwer Brook
Germany Alfsee
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Gandersum/Lange Maar
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Mittleres Wietingsmoor
Germany Dosse-Jäglitz lowlands
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Wetterau
Germany Middle Fulda valley
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Hoher Meißner/Plesse-Konstein
Germany Hedges and orchards areas in the Lumda valley
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Oldenburger Graben and Wesseker See
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Warder See
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Kudensee
Ireland Lough Ree
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Cahore marshes
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland The Gearagh and the Iniscarra reservoir
Ireland Lough Corrib
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland West Donegal coast
Ireland Falcarragh to Min an Chladaigh
Ireland Dunfanaghy New Lake
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Luxembourg Valley of the Ernze Blanche
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Aspelt - Lannebur, am Kessel
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Polesie
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Norway Tenna & Herøy
Norway Jæren
Norway Øvre Forra
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Kunda
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Karula
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Arnasay Lake System
Netherlands Arkemheen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Sneekermeergebied
Netherlands Wormer- en Jisperveld & Kalverpolder
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Meenikunno bog
China (mainland) Laoting (Daqing He–Shi Jiu Tuo)
Sweden Sjaunja
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Clostridium botulinum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Vanellus vanellus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/05/2020.