NT
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2abce+3bce+4abce
2015 Near Threatened A2abce+3bce+4abce
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 42,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 5,600,000-10,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012).  The European population is estimated at 1,590,000-2,580,000 pairs, which equates to 3,190,000-5,170,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015).  In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008); this is supported by recent data from Europe, suggesting the European population is decreasing by 30-49% in 27 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).  A strong decline is also reported for the European and western Asian population between 1988 and 2012, based on annual mid-winter counts (Nagy et al. 2014).  No recent trend data is available for the two other flyway populations (breeding in southern Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and northern China and wintering in southern and eastern Asia [Wetlands International 2015]).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominica V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
France Vallée de l'Aisne
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Western Negev
Israel Zevulun valley
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Dayan Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Norway Jæren
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (European) Suskanski Bay of Kuybyshev Resrvoir
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia River Drava

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Named species - Clostridium botulinum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Named species - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Vanellus vanellus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017.