LC
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 113,000,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 124,000,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 1000000-2499999 mature individuals poor estimated 2021
Population trend unknown - estimated -
Generation length 7.85 years - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 234,000-380,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International In prep.). Europe forms approximately 26% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of global population size is 900,000-1,460,000, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in Canada and the USA is estimated at 210,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2020).  It is placed in the band 1,000,000-2,499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Globally, the population trend is considered unknown. This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 59% in 24 years (three generations). Declines have been recorded recently in the east Netherlands (Rutz et al. 2006), locally in Germany (Gedeon et al. 2015), in Denmark (-8% per year from 2005-2014; Nyegaard et al. 2015), and in Finland (Valkama et al. 2011).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant vagrant
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant vagrant
Andorra extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bangladesh extant vagrant
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant vagrant
Bhutan extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
Canada extant native yes yes
China (mainland) extant native yes yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes
Egypt extant vagrant
Estonia extant native yes
Finland extant native yes
France extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes
Hong Kong (China) extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
India extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant vagrant
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant native yes
Japan extant native yes
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kuwait extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Laos extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Libya extant vagrant
Liechtenstein extant native yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Mexico extant native yes yes yes
Moldova extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native yes yes
Myanmar extant native yes yes
Nepal extant native yes
Netherlands extant native yes
North Korea extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant vagrant yes
Pakistan extant vagrant
Palestine extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
South Korea extant native yes
Spain extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes yes
Taiwan, China extant vagrant
Tajikistan extant vagrant
Thailand extant native yes
Tunisia extant vagrant
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant vagrant yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant native yes yes
Uzbekistan extant native
Vietnam extant vagrant yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Boreal major resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Tundra suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Bubo bubo Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Accipiter gentilis. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/northern-goshawk-accipiter-gentilis on 29/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/02/2024.