Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 113,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 124,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000000-2499999 poor estimated 2021
Population trend Unknown estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.85 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 234,000-380,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International In prep.). Europe forms approximately 26% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of global population size is 900,000-1,460,000, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in Canada and the USA is estimated at 210,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2020).  It is placed in the band 1,000,000-2,499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Globally, the population trend is considered unknown. This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 59% in 24 years (three generations). Declines have been recorded recently in the east Netherlands (Rutz et al. 2006), locally in Germany (Gedeon et al. 2015), in Denmark (-8% per year from 2005-2014; Nyegaard et al. 2015), and in Finland (Valkama et al. 2011).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Astara-chai valley
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Girkan forest
Azerbaijan Ilisu area
Azerbaijan Ismailly area
Azerbaijan Vilajchai valley
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Labunava forest
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Dobron forest
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Ukrainian Steppe Nature Reserve
Ukraine Bakhtyn river valley
Ukraine Dereluj river valley
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Novograd-Volunskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Ushomyrs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Montagne de la Serre
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Bois du Chapitre
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Arjuzanx
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Forêt de Jugny
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Forêts domaniales de Corse
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Forêt de Chaux
France Etang des Landes
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Bois de Palayson, du Rouet et de Malvoisin
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Forêts picardes : massif de Saint-Gobain
France Vallée du Régino
France Bois des Ayes
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Mount Arcosu
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Val Grande
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Mount Sette Fratelli and Sarrabus
Italy Mount Ferru of Tertenia
Czechia Doupov hills
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Obedska bara
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Resava gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Norway Alta-Kautokeino watercourse
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Poland Gorce mountains
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Northern Steigerwald
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Croatia Alluvial forests from Podravska Slatina to Vuka
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Otepää
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (European) Podozerskie open pits
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée d'Asco
France Vallée de la Restonica
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Zones rupestres du Tarasconnais et massif d'Aston
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Parc National de la Vanoise
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (European) Ichalkovski forest
Canada Hay and Zama Lakes
Canada Terra Nova National Park
Canada Beamer Conservation Area
Canada Holiday Beach / Big Creek CA
Canada Tadoussac
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Jordan Wadi Yarmuk
Jordan Ajloun
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Italy Dolomites
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Karwendel
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine National Park Stara Guta
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Luosto
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Hasbruch
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Davert
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Luxembourg Region Kiischpelt
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Hel Peninsula
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Karadjordjevo
Serbia Titelski breg
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Pester
Serbia Golija
Serbia Gornje Pomoravlje
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Serbia Kopaonik
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Haanja
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Muddus
Sweden Påkketan
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Boreal major resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Tundra suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Bubo bubo Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Indirect ecosystem effects

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Accipiter gentilis. Downloaded from on 01/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/07/2022.