LC
Northern Giant Petrel Macronectes halli



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 132,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 23600 medium estimated 2001
Population trend Increasing good suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17 - - -

Population justification: The largest population is on South Georgia (Georgias del Sur), with c.4,310 pairs. followed by Chatham Islands (c.2000 pairs on the Forty-Fours and 80-100 pairs on Middle Sister), Iles Kerguelen (1,450-1,800 pairs), Iles Crozet (1,300 pairs), Macquarie Island (c.1,500 pairs), Prince Edward Island (464 pairs), Antipodes Island (233 pairs), Campbell Island (234 pairs) and the Auckland Group (100 pairs). In total, the population is estimated to number 11,800 breeding pairs.

Trend justification: Recent data indicate population increases may be occurring. In the 1980s, the world population was estimated to number c.8,600 pairs (Hunter 1985). A more recent estimate, is of 11,800 pairs (ACAP 2010), an apparent increase of >30 % (Patterson et al. 2008). A comprehensive survey of all known breeding sites in the South Georgia archipelago between 2005 and 2006 suggests that there has been a c.30 % increase in the last two decades (Poncet et al. in litt. 2008). The Marion Island and possibly the Prince Edward Island populations are also increasing. On Macquarie Island, the population showed a steady increase up until 2009, where the population peaked at an estimated 1,800-1,900 breeding pairs. A substantial mortality event associated with non-target/secondary poisoning during the Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Project aerial baiting phase in 2010 and 2011, reduced the population to pre-2000 levels (R. Alderman unpubl. data). Subsequent monitoring and modelling predict full recovery and continuation of increase for this population (Tuck et al. in prep.). The Possession Island (Crozet) population, which decreased between the 1980s and 1992, may now be increasing (Bretagnolle et al. 1991, H. Weimerskirch unpubl. data). These increases probably reflect greater availability of carrion from expanding populations of fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis, increased waste from commercial fishing operations (Patterson et al. 2008), and use of measures to reduce seabird bycatch around some breeding colonies, such as South Georgia (Georgias del Sur). A 2003 census on the Antipodes Islands counted 230 breeding pairs (Wiltshire and Hamilton 2003), but trends are not known at present. 


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) U Extant
High Seas N Extant Yes
Mozambique U Extant
Namibia U Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Réunion (to France) V Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons
French Southern Territories Îles des Apôtres
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins
French Southern Territories Péninsule Courbet
French Southern Territories Islands of the Golfe du Morbihan
French Southern Territories Baie Larose
French Southern Territories Péninsule Rallier du Baty
French Southern Territories Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny
French Southern Territories Îles Leygues
French Southern Territories Île Foch, Île Sainte Lanne Gramont and Île Howe
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks
Argentina Sistema Península de Valdés
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur
Australia Macquarie Island
Chile Arica Pelágica
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Auckland Islands
New Zealand Chatham Islands
New Zealand The Sisters Rangitatahi
New Zealand Forty Fours Motuhara
New Zealand Stewart Island / Rakiura
New Zealand Stewart Island / the rest
New Zealand Port Pegasus
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Snares (eastern islands)
New Zealand Adams Island
New Zealand Disappointment Island
New Zealand Enderby Group
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
Chile Isla Rapa Nui
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Atlantic, Southwest 3 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 9 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 2 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 5 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 4 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 6 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 7 - Marine
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve - Marine
High Seas South Georgia Marine Protected Area Border North
High Seas Atlantic, Antarctic 21 - Marine
Australia Macquarie Island - Marine
Australia Pacific, Southwest 18 - Marine
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand The Sisters/Rangitatahi
New Zealand Kaikoura (offshore)
New Zealand Chatham Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Chatham (offshore)
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia Inner Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia Outer Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Macronectes halli. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021.