LC
Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 90,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 90,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 7000000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 30.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at c.7,000,000 pairs or 20,000,000 individuals (Carboneras et al. 2016). In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,380,000-3,500,000 pairs, which equates to 6,760,000-7,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). In Russia the population is estimated at c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and >c.10,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In the Atlantic the species has undergone a large range expansion over the last two centuries whilst Arctic populations have remained relatively stable over the last four centuries (Brooke 2004, Carboneras et al. 2016). The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe since declines began in the mid-1980s (c. one generation) the population size is estimated to have declined by more than 40%. Although there is uncertainty in the projected magnitude of the decline owing to the long generation length of the species, the population size in Europe is estimated to be decreasing by 50-79% in the period 1985-2077 (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Bahamas V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Spain V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Baillarge Bay
Canada Buchan Gulf
Canada Cape Searle
Canada Cape Vera
Canada Hobhouse Inlet
Canada Prince Leopold Island
Canada Reid Bay
Canada Scott Inlet
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
Germany Eastern part of German Bight (with Heligoland)
Iceland Bardinn
Iceland Blakkur
Iceland Drifindisbjarg
Iceland Eyjafjoll Hvammur
Iceland Geirholmfur
Iceland Gerpir
Iceland Grænahlid
Iceland Hornbjarg & Haelavikurbjarg
Iceland Hvanndalabjorg
Iceland Kjalararnupur
Iceland Kögur-Balaströnd
Iceland Látrabjarg
Iceland Myrarhyrna
Iceland Olafsfjardarmuli
Iceland Riturinn
Iceland Saudanes
Iceland Selardalur - nydri og sydri
Iceland Skalanesbjarg
Iceland Stigahlid Deild
Iceland Strandhafnarbjörg
Iceland Talkni
Iceland Tindastoll
Iceland Toarfjall
Iceland Vebjarnarnupur
Iceland Vestmannaeyjar
Iceland Vidvikurbjorg
Russia (Asian) Cape Olyutorskiy - Cape Irina
Russia (Asian) Commander Islands
Russia (Asian) Iony Island
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) Navarin Cape
Russia (Asian) Tyuleniy Island
Russia (Asian) Utashud Island
Russia (Asian) Yamskiye Islands
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Jan Mayen island
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Kvalhovden & Sjukovskifjella
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Midterhuken & Eholmen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom St Kilda
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 166W55N
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 174W59N
USA Chagulak Island Marine
USA Seguam Island Marine
USA Semidi Islands Colonies
USA St George Island Marine
USA St Matthew & Hall Islands Colonies
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Fulmarus glacialis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/11/2019.