LC
Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 90,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 90,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 7000000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 30.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at c.7,000,000 pairs or 20,000,000 individuals (Carboneras et al. 2016). In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,380,000-3,500,000 pairs, which equates to 6,760,000-7,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). In Russia the population is estimated at c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and >c.10,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In the Atlantic the species has undergone a large range expansion over the last two centuries whilst Arctic populations have remained relatively stable over the last four centuries (Brooke 2004, Carboneras et al. 2016). The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe since declines began in the mid-1980s (c. one generation) the population size is estimated to have declined by more than 40%. Although there is uncertainty in the projected magnitude of the decline owing to the long generation length of the species, the population size in Europe is estimated to be decreasing by 50-79% in the period 1985-2077 (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Bahamas V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Spain V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Saunders island
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissut Avalliit (Ydre Kitsissut)
Greenland (to Denmark) Kap Brewster and Volquart Boon's coast
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Lítla Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Stóra Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Hestur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Koltur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Nólsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Svínoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vidoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Bordoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kunoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kalsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Eysturoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Iceland Skoruvik-Skalabjarg
Iceland Riturinn
Iceland Hælavíkurbjarg
Iceland Látrabjarg
Iceland Vestmannaeyjar
Ireland Lambay Island
Ireland Saltee Islands
Ireland Sovereign Islands
Ireland The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig
Ireland Puffin Island
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Cliffs of Moher
Ireland High Island
Ireland Inishbofin and Inishshark (including Davillaun)
Ireland Clare Island cliffs
Ireland Duvillaun Islands
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Illaunmaistir (Oilean Maistir)
Ireland Tory Island
Ireland Horn Head cliffs
Ireland Old Head of Kinsale
Ireland Howth Head
Ireland Tormore Island
Iceland Hornbjarg & Haelavikurbjarg
Iceland Hornbjarg
Iceland Melrakkaslétta
Iceland Krýsuvíkurberg
France Cap Gris-nez
France Falaise du Bessin
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Cap Sizun
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Ile d'Ouessant
France Cap Frehel
France Presqu'île de Crozon, Tas de Pois et Rochers du Toulinguet
France Cap Fagnet
United Kingdom Ailsa Craig
United Kingdom Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs
United Kingdom Flannan Isles
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Fowlsheugh
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli
United Kingdom Glannau Ynys Gybi/Holy Island Coast
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Marwick Head
United Kingdom Mingulay and Berneray
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom North Colonsay and Western Cliffs
United Kingdom North Rona and Sula Sgeir
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom Noss
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Pembrokeshire Cliffs
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Priest Island
United Kingdom Ramna Stacks and Gruney
United Kingdom Rathlin Island
United Kingdom Rum
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom Sheep Island
United Kingdom Shiant Isles
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom St Abbs Head to Fast Castle
United Kingdom St Kilda
United Kingdom Sule Skerry and Sule Stack
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Troup, Pennan and Lion Heads
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Cardigan Island
United Kingdom North Sutherland Coastal Islands
United Kingdom Eilean nan Ron
United Kingdom Faray and Holm of Faray
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Little Cumbrae Island
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Tolsta Head, Lewis
United Kingdom Calf of Man
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
Greenland (to Denmark) Qeqertaq
Greenland (to Denmark) Qingartarsuaq
Greenland (to Denmark) Appatsiaat
Greenland (to Denmark) Innarsuaq
Greenland (to Denmark) Salleq
Norway Røst
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Gjesværstappan
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Jan Mayen island
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Hopen island
Greenland (to Denmark) Islands and waters south and west of Upernavik town
Germany Heligoland island
Russia (Asian) Yamskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Tyuleniy Island
Russia (Asian) Iony Island
Russia (Asian) Cape Olyutorskiy - Cape Irina
Russia (Asian) Commander Islands
Russia (Asian) Utashud Island
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
Canada Amphitrite and Swiftsure Banks
Canada Gannet Islands
Canada Witless Bay Islands
Canada Baccalieu Island
Canada Funk Island
Canada Cape Searle
Canada Prince Leopold Island
Canada Cambridge Point
Canada Cape Vera
Canada Cape Liddon
Canada Hobhouse Inlet
Canada Baillarge Bay
Canada Buchan Gulf
Canada Scott Inlet
Canada Reid Bay
Canada McIntyre Beach and Rose Spit
Iceland Ingolfshofdi
USA Chagulak Island
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge, marine
Germany Eastern part of German Bight (with Heligoland)
Ireland Inishtrahull
Ireland West Donegal coast
Ireland Ireland's Eye
Ireland Aughris Head
Ireland Wicklow Head
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Inishmurray
Ireland Helvick Head
Iceland Hrísey
USA St Matthew Island
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 166W55N
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 174W59N
USA Chagulak Island Marine
USA Seguam Island Marine
USA St George Island Marine
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes
USA Semidi Islands Colonies
USA St Matthew & Hall Islands Colonies
Iceland Raudinupur
Iceland Drangey
Iceland Grímsey, Eyjafirdi
Iceland Skrúdur
Iceland Papey
Iceland Myrdalur
Iceland Snaefellsnes
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Kvalhovden & Sjukovskifjella
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Alkhornet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Midterhuken & Eholmen
Norway Runde
Iceland Geirholmfur
Iceland Drifindisbjarg
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Denmark Skagerrak-Southwest Norwegian trench
Iceland Kjalararnupur
Iceland Kögur-Balaströnd
Iceland Gerpir
Iceland Grænahlid
Russia (Asian) Sireniki shore of Chukotka
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Bay - marine
Russia (Asian) Cape Krasniy - marine
Iceland Vebjarnarnupur
Iceland Selardalur - nydri og sydri
Iceland Eyjafjoll Hvammur
Iceland Myrarhyrna
Iceland Bardinn
Iceland Blakkur
Iceland Talkni
Iceland Saudanes
Iceland Hvanndalabjorg
Iceland Toarfjall
Iceland Stigahlid Deild
Iceland Vidvikurbjorg
Iceland Tindastoll
Iceland Skalanesbjarg
Iceland Strandhafnarbjörg
Iceland Olafsfjardarmuli
Russia (Asian) Navarin Cape
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Fulmarus glacialis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2020.