LC
Northern Cassowary Casuarius unappendiculatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Least Concern
2016 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 498,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 poor estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-10 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-10 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10 - - -

Population justification:

The overall mean density estimate in the one quantitative survey was 7.4 (5.7-9.6) per km² (Pangau-Adam et al. 2015). This is likely optimal habitat and given that it is likely to occupy only a proportion of its Extent of Occurrence, the population is precautionarily estimated to number 10,000-19,999 mature individuals (G. Dutson in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: It is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, given its long generation time and the rates of habitat loss and degradation. Across north coastal Papua New Guinea (West Sepik, East Sepik and Madang provinces), forest loss was 1.4% and plus 3.5% forest degradation between 2002 and 2014 (Bryan and Shearman 2015); rates for Indonesian New Guinea are not quantified but appear to be similar. Given its likely persistence at lower population densities in logged forest, and a slowly increasing rate of hunting, its population is precautionarily suspected to be declining at 1-10% over three generations (30 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Mamberamo
Indonesia Bernhard

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major resident
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Casuarius unappendiculatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021.