NT
Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A2bcd
2016 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2012 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c; A3b,c; A4b,c
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 166 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5800000 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 5,800,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2020).

Trend justification: The species has been undergoing a large and statistically significant decline over the past five decades in North America, at an average of -3.64% per year (Partners in Flight 2020). The rate of decline appears to have slowed down in recent years (Meehan et al. 2018; Pardieck et al. 2018). Over the past ten years, the population in North America declined by 22% (Pardieck et al. 2018).
There is no information on the rate of population change from other countries. However, as North America holds about 75% of the global population (Partners in Flight 2020), it is assumed that the trend observed in North America is representative for the entire population, and as such the species is estimated to have declined by 20-29% over the past ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas I Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
China (mainland) I Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic I Extant Yes
France I Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Haiti I Extant Yes
Italy I Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
Portugal I Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) I Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) I Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) I Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río
Cuba Sierra del Rosario
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata
Cuba Limones - Tuabaquey
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud
Cuba Sierra del Chorrillo
Cuba Topes de Collantes
Cuba Alturas de Banao
Cuba Desembarco del Granma
Cuba Río Máximo
Cuba Delta del Cauto
Cuba La Mensura
Cuba Delta del Mayarí
Cuba Alejandro de Humboldt
Cuba Hatibonico - Baitiquirí - Imías
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair
Bahamas Owenstown
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus
Cuba Gibara
Haiti Aux Diablotins
Mexico Cañón de Lobos
Mexico Centro de Veracruz
Mexico Cerro de Oro
Mexico Chimalapas
Mexico Corredor Laguna Bélgica - Sierra Limón - Cañón Sumidero
Mexico Centro de Investigaciones Costeras La Mancha (CICOLMA)
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila
Cuba Siboney - Juticí
Mexico El Cielo
Mexico El Ocote
Mexico El Tacaná
Mexico El Triunfo
Mexico Humedales de Alvarado
Mexico Humedales del Sur de Tamaulipas y Norte de Veracruz
Mexico La Encrucijada
Mexico La Sepultura
Mexico Laguna de Manialtepec
Mexico Laguna Madre
Mexico Zapotal-Mactumactzá
Mexico Los Tuxtlas
Mexico Montes Azules
Mexico Nacimiento Río Sabinas-Sureste de la Sierra de Santa Rosa
Mexico Parras de la Fuente
Mexico Tecolutla
Mexico Presa Temascal
Mexico Presa Venustiano Carranza
Mexico Presa Vicente Guerrero
Mexico Río Metlac
Mexico Sierra de Zongolica
Mexico Sierra de Tabasco
Mexico Sierra Chixtontic, Sierra Canjá
USA Lynnville-Squaw Creek Mine Complex
USA Fort Chaffee
USA Chinook Fish and Wildlife Area and Chinook Mine
USA Goose Pond/Beehunter Marsh Fish and Wildlife Area
USA Lower Rappahannock River
Mexico Bosque La Primavera
USA Chino Farms
USA Alligator River Lowlands
USA Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge
USA Katy Prairie Conservancy
USA Shortleaf Pine-Bluestem Grass Ecosystem Management Area
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Colinus virginianus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2022.