CR
Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremita
BirdLife is reviewing the status of this species for the 2017 Red List.
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Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 1202 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 203,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 615,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10 good
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 200-249 good estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations 95-99 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8 - - -

Population justification: In Souss-Massa National Park and Tamri, Morocco in 2015, 116 pairs raised 205 fledglings with a total of 580 individuals present at the end of the breeding season (Oubrou and El Bekkay 2015). In 2014, 115 pairs produced 192 young which went on to fledge (Oubrou and El Bekkay 2014). In 2013, 113 pairs (i.e. 226 mature individuals) nested, out of 319 adults, and produced 148 fledged young with a total of 443 birds at the end of the breeding season (Oubrou and El Bekkay 2013, J. F. Orueta in litt. 2016). In 2011, 110 pairs produced 138 fledged young (J. F. Orueta in litt. 2016), matching the breeding success of 2010, when 105 pairs fledged 138 young (R. Grimmett in litt. 2011). After the breeding season the total number of birds in the western population may have exceeded 500 in 2011-2012 (IAGNBI 2012), and almost reached 600 individuals in 2015 (Oubrou and El Bekkay 2015). Only a single mature female returned to Syria in 2013 (C. Bowden in litt. 2013) and again in 2014 but reportedly no birds returned in 2015 (Serra 2015). The last successful breeding record in Syria is from 2011 when a single breeding pair fledged two young (R. Grimmett in litt. 2011). The Turkish population now numbers around 100 individuals (IAGNBI 2012), but these managed birds are excluded from the total estimate. The species is considered Regionally Extinct in Europe (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: An unquantified decline is indirectly estimated to have occurred over the last three generations. The Moroccan population has been stable since 1980, however Serra (2003) provides reasonable evidence, including testimonies of local people, that in Syria the species was still common 20 years ago and possibly quite abundant 30 years ago. Colonies of several hundred probably existed up until 1980. Although the Turkish population may be now recovering to levels it was at ten or more years ago, this heavily managed population is excluded from the overall trends.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Egypt V Extinct
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extinct Yes
Germany V Extant
Iraq N Possibly Extinct
Israel N Extinct Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Mali V Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extinct Yes
Serbia V Extant
Somalia V Extant
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extinct Yes
Switzerland N Extinct Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Turkey R Extant Yes
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Morocco Oued Matil: Ksob
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Tamri and Imsouane
Morocco Tarhazoute
Saudi Arabia National Wildlife Research Center and environs, Taif
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Turkey Southern Euphrates Valley and Birecik Plains
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Ta'izz wadis

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major non-breeding
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Geronticus eremita. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/07/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/07/2017.