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North Philippine Hawk-eagle Nisaetus philippensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Nisaetus philippensis and N. pinskeri (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as N. philippensis following Haring et al. (2006), which before then was placed in the genus Spizaetus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+3cd+4cd A2cd+3cd+4cd; D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2014 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 233,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 400-600 poor estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.5 - - -

Population justification: The species stronghold appears to be Luzon where 200-220 pairs were estimated in the late 1990s (Preleuthner and Gamauf 1998). Given that rapid declines have presumably continued since then, a preliminary population estimate is of a total of 400-600 mature individuals, roughly equating to 600-900 individuals.

Trend justification: Deforestation in the Philippines is reported to have been very rapid in recent decades, and it is said that the country lost c.40% of its forest cover in the 20 years between 1970 and 1990 (Uitamo 1999). Data from ESSC (Environmental Science for Social Change) suggest that the area of closed-canopy forest in the Philippines decreased by c.44% between 1987 and 2002 (Walpole 2010). Assuming rapid losses of primary forest over the past 56 years, and impacts from hunting and trapping pressure, it is likely that this species has experienced population declines of more than 50% over the past three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Philippines N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines Mount Pulag National Park
Philippines Bataan Natural Park and Subic Bay Forest Reserve
Philippines Mariveles mountains
Philippines Buguey wetlands
Philippines North Eastern Cagayan Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Peñablanca Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park
Philippines Central Sierra Madre mountains
Philippines Aurora Memorial National Park
Philippines Mount Dingalan
Philippines Angat watershed
Philippines Mounts Irid-Angilo and Binuang
Philippines Mount Makiling
Philippines University of the Philippines Land Grants (Pakil and Real)
Philippines Quezon National Park
Philippines Mount Isarog National Park
Philippines Bulusan Volcano Natural Park
Philippines Mount Halcon
Philippines Mount Siburan
Philippines Malpalon
Philippines Victoria and Anepahan Ranges
Philippines Casecnan Protected Landscape
Philippines Quirino Protected Landscape
Philippines North Central Sierra Madre Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Nisaetus philippensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020.