Noronha Vireo Vireo gracilirostris


Justification of Red List Category
This species is considered Near Threatened as it has a tiny range, being restricted to a single tiny island (plus a few secondary islets), and it has a small population size. It is therefore at increased risk from stochastic events, although no direct imminent threats are known, and trends are currently stable.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number at least 1,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 670 mature individuals (T. Mark in litt. 2003).

Distribution and population

Vireo gracilirostris is restricted to the Atlantic Ocean island of Fernando de Noronha (18.4 km2), Brazil, with sporadic records on secondary islands (Olson 1994, A. Schulz Neto in litt. 1999). An informal census along road systems counted 90 individuals in 2003 (T. Marks in litt. 2003), and preliminary censuses along the trail to Mirante dos Golfinhos e Baia do Sancho in 2003 counted 84 birds (F. Olmos in litt. 2005). The total population has not been quantified, but is believed to number more than 1,000 individuals.


This species is common in forest, gardens or scrub, particularly where there are small fig trees, and is abundant around Morro do Pico and in the western quarter (Oren 1982, Olson 1994). It is absent from cleared areas, but persists readily in secondary habitats.


Its absence from cleared areas suggests that this species was presumably historically more widespread, as the island was reportedly covered in forest when discovered in 1503 (Olson 1994). All large trees have long since been cut and all remaining vegetation on the island is secondary (Olson 1994). However, this appears to have had little effect on the viability of the population. Given the tiny range of this species, it could be at risk from major wildfire events (T. Marks in litt. 2003).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations and habitat trends on Fernando de Noronha. Ensure that sufficient remaining secondary forest habitats receive adequate protection.


14 cm. A dull olivaceous arboreal bird. Upperparts dull olivaceous brown, slightly greener on wings and tail. Narrow buffyish supercilium. Below pale greyish white, washed with dull greyish olive on sides. Bill slim and slender dusky with pinkish mandible. Similar spp. The only vireo in the island; the noronha Elaenia Elaenia ridleyana shows wing-bars. Voice Song is a melodious weet weet, chew-eyoo, whut whít. Also a harsh tschrr note. Hints Confiding and sedentary, they are quite mobile in the trees.


Text account compilers
Gilroy, J., Harding, M., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J

Olmos, F., Schulz Neto, A., Marks, T.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Vireo gracilirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2022.