New Zealand Kaka Nestor meridionalis


Beggs, J. R.; Wilson, P. R. 1991. The Kaka Nestor meridionalis, a New Zealand parrot endangered by introduced wasps and mammals. Biological Conservation 56: 23-38.

Berry, R. 1998. Reintroduction of Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) to Mount Bruce Reserve, Wairarapa, New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Greene, T. C.; Fraser, J. R. 1998. Sex ratio of North Island Kaka Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis, Waihaha Ecological Area, Pureora Forest Park. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 22: 11-16.

Greene, T.C.; Dilks, P.J; Westbrooke, I.M.; Pryde, M.A. 2013. Monitoring selected forest bird species through aerial application of 1080 baits, Waitutu, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 37(1): 41-50.

Greene, T.C.; Jones, A.; Dennis, G.; Sachtleben, T. 2010. Distance sampling to determine kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) density within Waipapa Ecological Area, Pureora. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 34(3): 297-305.

Greene, T.C.; Powlesland, R. G.; Dilks, P.J.; Moran, L. 2004. Research summary and options for conservation of kaka (Nestor meridionalis). Department of Conservation, Wellington.

Heather, B. D. & Robertson, H. A. 1997. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 2015. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand.

IUCN. 2022. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2022-2. Available at: (Accessed: 08 December 2022).

Joustra, T. 2018. Re-establishing North Island k?k? (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in New Zealand. Massey University.

Ledgard, G. 2010. Southern comfort for Kaka. Forest and Bird: 24-26.

Moorhouse, R. J. 1997. Diet of the North Island Kaka Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis on Kapiti Island. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 12: 141-152.

Moorhouse, R.; Greene, T.; Dilks, P.; Powlesland, R.; Moran, L.; Taylor, G.; Jones, A.; Knegtmans, J.; Wills, D.; Pryde, M.; Fraser, I.; August, A.; August, C. 2003. Control of introduced mammalian predators improves kaka Nestor meridionalis breeding success: reversing the decling of a threatened New Zealand parrot. Biological Conservation 110: 33-44.

Moorhouse, R.J. 2013. Kaka. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. . Available at:

Powlesland, R. G.; Greene, T. C.; Dilks, P. J.; Moorhouse, R. J.; Moran, L. R.; Taylor, G.; Jones, A.; Wills, D. E.; August, C. K.; August, A. C. L. 2009. Breeding biology of the New Zealand Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) (Psittacidae, Nestorinae). Notornis 56: 11-33.

Robertson, H.A., Baird, K.A., Elliott, G.P., Rodney, A., Hitchmough, N.J., Makan, T.D., Miskelly, C.M., O'Donnell, C.F.J., Sagar, P.M., Scofield, R.P., Taylor, G.A., Michel, P. 2021. Conservation status of birds in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2021. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Wilson, P. R.; Karl, B. J.; Totf, R. J.; Beggs, J. R.; Taylor, R. H. 1998. The role of introduced predators and competitors in the decline of Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) populations in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 83: 175-185.

Further resources

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Nestor meridionalis. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023.