VU
New Zealand Kaka Nestor meridionalis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2ce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Vulnerable A2ce
2016 Endangered A2ce+3be+4be
2013 Endangered A2be+3be+4be
2012 Endangered A2be+3be+4be
2008 Endangered A2b,e; A3b,e; A4b,e
2005 Endangered
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 455,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium suspected 2016
Population trend Decreasing good inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.7 - - -

Population justification: The population is suspected to be in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals in total, equating to 3,750-14,999 individuals. However, this estimate should be treated cautiously, as good data are only available from one population in the central North Island (T. Greene in litt. 2016). Less than 50% of the population is now found on the mainland (R. Moorhouse per R. Hitchmough in litt. 2005), with numbers high only in a few intensely managed sites and islands that remain free of possums and stoats.

Trend justification: N. m. meridionalis is listed as Nationally Vulnerable under the New Zealand Threat Classification System, thought to be declining at a rate of 10-50% within three generations, while subspecies septentrionalis is listed as Recovering due to ongoing pest control (Robertson et al. 2021). While there have been increases of both subspecies at some mainland sites, these are limited to the few sites where predator control has been successful. The species is overall thought to be declining across much of the range where predator control is absent and populations are highly skewed towards males (T. Greene in litt. 2022). Although the ongoing rate of decline is uncertain, the past rate of decline is suspected to exceed 30% (T. Greene in litt. 2022), placed here in the range 30-40%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Bay of Plenty Islands
New Zealand Whenua Hou Codfish Island
New Zealand Paterson Inlet The Neck
New Zealand Mercury Islands
New Zealand Taranga Hen Island
New Zealand Marotere Chickens Islands
New Zealand Chalky Preservation Inlets
New Zealand Dusky Sound Wet Jacket Arm
New Zealand Hirakimata Kotuku Peninsula
New Zealand Mokohinau Islands
New Zealand Port Pegasus
New Zealand Southern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Te Hauturu-o-Toi Little Barrier Island
New Zealand North Coast Rakiura

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Trichosurus vulpecula Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vespula germanica Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vespula vulgaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Nestor meridionalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/12/2022.