Namuli Apalis Apalis lynesi


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v) A2c; B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
2017 Near Threatened B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2016 Near Threatened B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Near Threatened B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Near Threatened B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,400 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 1,500
Number of locations 5 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 400-1300 medium estimated 2020
Population trend decreasing inferred -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (years) 2.6 - - -

Population justification: Surveys in 2007-2008 estimated a population size of 600-700 pairs on Namuli, based on density estimates of 5 pairs/10 ha over an area of 1200-1400 ha (Dowsett-Lemaire, 2010). Due to deforestation, the remaining suitable habitat on Namuli is now estimated to be 300-500 ha (Dowsett-Lemaire pers. comm. 2020), which would equate to roughly 150-250 pairs, or 300-500 mature individuals, based on previous population densities. Assuming the population densities are the same in the 800 ha of suitable habitat on Mabu, this would equate to an additional 400 pairs, or 800 mature individuals, and an overall total of 1100-1300 mature individuals. However, the forest on Mabu is believed to be sub-optimal for this species, and Dowsett-Lemaire (2010) found vastly different population densities at the two sites, with only an estimated few dozen pairs over the whole 800 ha at Mabu. If this is closer to the true population density on Mabu, the population size on Mabu may actually be <100 mature individuals. The population estimate is therefore placed at 400-1300 mature individuals, and due to the sub-optimal habitat quality at Mabu, it is likely that the current population is nearer the lower estimate.

Trend justification: The population is inferred to be experiencing high rates of decline due to substantial habitat loss from deforestation for potato cash crop production (Dowsett-Lemaire, 2010; Timberlake, 2017).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Mozambique extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mozambique Mount Namuli
Mozambique Mount Mabu

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1270 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Apalis lynesi. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/namuli-apalis-apalis-lynesi on 29/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/09/2023.