Mute Swan Cygnus olor


Berglund, B. E.; Curry-Lindahl, K.; Luther, H.; Olsson, V.; Rodke, W.; Sellerberg, G. 1963. Ecological studies on the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) in southeastern Sweden. Acta Vertebratica 2(2): 1-120.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Carboneras, C. and Kirwan, G.M. 2013. Mute Swan (Cygnus olor). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Day, D. D.; Beyer, W. N.; Hoffman, D. J.; Morton, A.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D. J.; Ottinger, M. A. 2003. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to Mute Swans. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 44: 510-522.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. European Bird Census Council. Available at:

Giles, N. 1994. Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) habitat use and brood survival increases after fish removal from gravel pit lakes. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 387-392.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 1: general chapters; species accounts (Anhima to Salvadorina). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Kelly, A.; Kelly, S. 2004. Fishing tackle injury and blood lead levels in Mute Swans. Waterbirds 27(1): 60-68.

Kobayashi, Y.; Shimada, A.; Umemura, T.; Nagai, T. 1992. An outbreak of copper poisoning in mute swans (Cygnus olor). Journal of Vetinary Medical Science 54(2): 229-233.

Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nagy, A.; Machova, J.; Hornickova, J.; Tomci, M.; Nagl, I.; Horyna, B.; Holko, I. 2007. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Mute swans in the Czech Republic. Vetinary Microbiology 120: 9-16.

Scott, D. A.; Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Spray, C. J.; Milne, H. 1988. The incidence of lead poisoning among whooper and mute swans Cygnus cygnus and C. olor in Scotland. Biological Conservation 44: 265-281.

Watola, G. V.; Stone, D. A.; Smith, G. C.; Forrester, G. J.; Coleman, A. E.; Coleman, J. T.; Goulding, M. J.; Robinson, K. A.; Wilsom, T. P. 2003. Analyses of two mute swan populations and the effects of clutch reduction: Implications for population management. Journal of Applied Ecology 40(3): 565-579.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

IUCN SSC Swan Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Cygnus olor. Downloaded from on 07/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/07/2022.