LC
Mute Swan Cygnus olor



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number approximately c.598,000-615,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 83,400-116,000 pairs, which equates to 167,000-231,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International, EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) I Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland I Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa I Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Yatata
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons Istieas
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Ireland Durnesh Lough
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Lough Ennell
Ireland Lough Kinale and Lough Derragh
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Latvia Irbe strait
Latvia Liepaja lake
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Lake Samilpo
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo
North Korea Taedong River estuary
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Insko Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Romania Argeş reservoir
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Olt valley
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Serbia Mala Vrbica
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Turkey Meriç Delta
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cygnus olor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2019.