LC
Mute Swan Cygnus olor



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number approximately c.598,000-615,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 83,400-116,000 pairs, which equates to 167,000-231,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International, EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) I Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland I Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa I Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
North Macedonia Lake Ohrid
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Cedasas Lake
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Zaltytis
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Hullo and Sviby bays
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Hiiumaa islets
Estonia Hari Kurk strait
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Audru polder
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Relict lakes of southern Saaremaa
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Latvia Lake Kanieris
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Pape
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Comana
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Ireland Lough Ennell
Ireland Lough Gill
Ireland Durnesh Lough
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Lough Mask
Ireland Lough Kinale and Lough Derragh
Turkey Meriç Delta
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Nietlice marshes
Greece Evros delta
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Akhtubinsk wetland
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (European) Morskoy Biryuchek island
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay)
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Bodakivs'ke marsh
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Velyke marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Forêts du Perche
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Alvie
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Hornsea Mere
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Oire
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Walmore Common
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Guldborgsund
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Kiel Bay and adjacent waters
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Georgia Kolkheti
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovakia Slnava
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Derdap gorge
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Vorma
Austria Western Waldviertel
Poland Puck Bay
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Schlei
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Alfsee
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Federseeried
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Latvia Irbe strait
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Oling area
Russia (European) Rakhinski forest
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
North Korea Taedong River estuary
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo
North Korea Lake Samilpo
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Sutu bay
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Red Lake
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Gor'koye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krivoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tishki Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Sykandyk Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Maly Sarykul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koe, Krivoe and Zhuravlinoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shie Chertany Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gorbunnoe and Solenoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kyzil-Chilik valley
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Garvansko Marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Boucle de Moisson
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etang des Landes
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bakanzhul lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Alakupa marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Akman lake
Russia (Central Asian) Zingeika lake
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Tulak lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake 2
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy Sarykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kamyshnoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Solenoye lake
Canada Cowichan estuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Bulgaria Yatata
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Sweden River Helge
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Sweden Lake Lim
Sweden Lake Skedviken
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Krasnodarskoye reservoir
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Chapaevskie Limans
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Germany Vogelsberg
Russia (European) Kazachka
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Untermain
Ireland Lough Derg (River Shannon)
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Coole Park and Garryland complex
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Lough Corrib
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Lough Derravaragh
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Argeş reservoir
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Olt valley
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Marstal Bugt and the coast of south-west Langeland
Denmark Skælskør Nor, Skælskør Fjord and Borreby Mose
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Insko Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Odra riverine forests
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Polesie
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Vaindloo island
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Luitemaa
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Koigi
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Greece Lake Dystos
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Netherlands Krimpenerwaard
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Misso
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Turkmenistan Ayrakly – Garadzhaovlak
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Cygnus olor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020.