NT
Mountain Plover Charadrius montanus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2018 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2016 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2012 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2008 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,580,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000 good estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.91 - - -

Population justification: Whilst thought to number just 10,000-14,000 mature individuals until relatively recently (2009), estimates have been subject to significant revision and Partners in Flight (2019) now estimate the population to total ~20,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species underwent a large and statistically significant decrease. Recent data from Partners in Flight (2019) suggests a potential annual decline of ~3.11% between 1970-2017, which would equate to a decline of 31% over three generations. However, there is a large margin of error in this estimate and populations are thought to have been stabilising in recent years (T. O'Connell in litt. 2016). The North American Breeding Bird Survey suggests a rate of decline of ~2.5% between 2010-2015, which equates to a decline of ~26% across three generations (Sauer et al. 2017), lower than the 31% suggested over the longer term by Partners in Flight (2019). As a result, the rate of decline is placed in the band 20-29%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Grasslands National Park (west)
Mexico El Manantial
Mexico Janos - Nuevo Casas Grandes
Mexico Pradera de Tokio
USA Imperial Valley
USA Pawnee National Grassland
USA Little Beaver Creek
Mexico Humedales Chihuahua
USA Carrizo Plain
USA Jepson Grasslands
USA Lone Willow Slough
USA Antelope Valley (Lancaster)
USA Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge
Mexico Complejo de Humedales del Noroeste de Chihuahua
Mexico Sierra Catorce
Mexico Sierra de San Carlos
Mexico Laguna Madre
Mexico Área de San Quintín
Mexico Bahía Todos Santos

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Yersinia pestis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Loss of mutualism
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Charadrius montanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/05/2022.