NT
Mountain Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron inopinatum



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2023 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2013 Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 28,500 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 2500-20000, 2500-9999 mature individuals poor inferred 2018
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2006-2024
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Generation length 5.95 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: The density of this species has not previously been estimated. Other Polyplectron have been recorded at densities of 3.74 birds/km(P. katsumatae; Gao 1998) and 4.33 calling males/km2 (P. germaini; Nguyen et al. 2018). Similar densities (spanning c.2.5-8.5 mature individuals/km2) are inferred for this species. In 2018, Savini et al. (2021) estimated the area of suitable habitat for this species as c.5,600 km2 using computation analysis of forest patches larger than 40 km2. Assuming approximately c.20-40% of suitable habitat is occupied, the population is inferred to number c.2,500-20,000 mature individuals, with a precautionary best estimate of 2,500-9,999.

Trend justification: Including only patches >40 km2 in their analysis, Savini et al. (2021) estimated a minor c.2% contraction in suitable habitat between 2000 and 2018, while Global Forest Watch (2022) indicates a similar reduction of c.3.1% forest loss over three generations (18 years; Bird et al. 2020) between 2003 and 2021. As a highly forest-dependent species, these losses are suspected of causing proportional population size impacts. The majority of these losses are at the species' lowest altitudinal limits, with higher elevation forest remaining intact. This species may be impacted by disturbances caused by roads linking hill stations and, more locally, by some moderate hunting pressures. It is suspected to be declining at an ongoing rate of 1-9% over three generation time periods.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Malaysia extant native yes
Thailand extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malaysia Selangor Heritage Park
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range
Thailand Hala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary and Bang Lang National Park
Malaysia Bintang Range

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 820 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Polyplectron inopinatum. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/mountain-peacock-pheasant-polyplectron-inopinatum on 20/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 20/02/2024.