Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,900,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300000-550000 poor suspected 2021
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.59 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 69,700-110,000 breeding females, which equates to 139,000-219,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International In prep.). Europe forms approximately 41% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 339,000-534,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 300,000 to 550,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The global population is suspected to be decreasing owing to agricultural intensification and destruction of nests by farm machinery, over-use of pesticides and improved locust control, and loss of small mammal and bird prey species due to changing agricultural practices (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The European breeding population is thought to be decreasing by more than 10% over three generations (BirdLife International In prep.). Very little information is available on Asian breeding populations. Roost counts of overwintering birds in India during 1985-2015 found no significant decline of this species, despite overall declines in harrier numbers (Ganesh & Prashant 2018), however analysis of sightings of Montagu's Harrier in India logged on eBird suggested a moderate decline over the last 25 years (SoIB 2020).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Congo V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Tyruliai State Nature Reserve
Lithuania Verkne river
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Valley of Sirvinta River
Liechtenstein Ruggeller Riet, Talgebiet
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Pape
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Alter do Chão
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Monforte plains
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Gerês mountains
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Campo Maior
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Malcata mountains
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Belgium Sinémurienne
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode
Turkey Balıkdamı
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Ardahan forest
Turkey Doğubayazıt Marshes
Turkey Yüksekova
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden River Helge
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Bay of Svensksund
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Dymerskie meadows
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Hungary Flood plain of Tiszaalpár
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Ipoly Valley
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Gerecse
Russia (European) Sources of Osuga river
Russia (European) Siniye mountains
Russia (European) Zavoronezhski area
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain La Janda
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Puebla de Don Fadrique-Las Cañadas
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain La Serena
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Humada-Peña Amaya
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Belver de los Montes-Gallegos del Pan
Spain Topas
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain Tarifa
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain Ceuta
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Cinca river rice fields and steppe area
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Spain Prat de Cabanes-Torreblanca
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain La Limia
Spain Villalba de los Barros
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Zones agricoles de la Hardt
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Montagne de la Serre
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Pointe de Grave
France Champ de Tir du Poteau
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baie de Vilaine
France Plateau Ardennais
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Bassigny
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Petite Beauce
France Vallée de l'Yèvre
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Vallée du Fouzon
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Etang des Landes
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Montagne de la Clape
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Minervois
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Montagnes de Marcou, de l'Espinouse et du Caroux
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Crau
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Manteyer
France Bec de Crigne
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Forêts picardes : massif de Saint-Gobain
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Forêt du Gavre
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Plaine du Forez
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Domaine d'Orx
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Forêts du Perche
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Cap Gris-nez
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Basse vallée du Var
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Col de l'Escrinet
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom The Wash
Italy Murge
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy River Cecina middle valley
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Piave river
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Cicolano
Italy River Biferno
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Colfiorito
Italy Coast from Palo to Santa Marinella
Italy Arezzo heathlands
Italy Calvana mountains
Italy Crete Senesi
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Ponziane islands
Italy Selva del Lamone
Italy Mount Conero
Italy Alpi Apuane
Italy Stirone stream
Italy Sentina
Italy Maritime Alps
Czechia Doupov hills
Sweden Lake Dättern
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Denmark Sønder Ådal
Denmark Frøslev Plantage and Frøslev Mose
Denmark Tinglev Mose and Sø
Denmark Kongens Mose and Draved Skov
Denmark Fiilsø
Denmark Kallesmærsk Hede, Grærup Langsø and surrounding areas
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Kogsbøl and Skast Moser
Denmark Ho Bugt meadows
Denmark Ribe Holme and meadows at Kongeåen
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Råbjerg Mile and surrounding heathlands
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Ballum og Husum Enge, Kamper strandenge
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Morava
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Central Marchfeld
Turkey Tuz Lake
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Fehntjer Tief
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Milde lowlands/Altmark
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Herbsleben ponds
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Heerter See
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Gandersum/Lange Maar
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Stromberg
Germany Feldberg-Woldegk terminal moraine
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Lithuania Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve
Turkey Batmış Lake (Cil Lake)
Russia (European) Shemyakinski forest
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
Estonia Suursoo-Leidissoo
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Russia (Central Asian) Yarovskoe marsh
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Podozerskie open pits
Russia (Central Asian) Shartymka valley
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Uzava meadows
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Vecumi
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serras do Alvão e Marão
Portugal Estrela Mountains
Portugal Cuba
Armenia Tashir
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Hautes Corbières
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Basse Ardêche
France Forêt de Jugny
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Forêt de Chaux
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Estuaire de la Charente
France La Dombes
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Tri Gusikhi
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs
Iran, Islamic Republic of Assadabad plain
Lithuania Birzulius-Stervas marshes complex
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Italy Po Delta
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Western Weinviertel
Ukraine Urochysche Mushevo
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Lebanon Yanta
Ukraine National Park Stara Guta
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Sweden Lake Vendel
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Pasleka river valley
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Italy Ticino river
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Rogalin Site
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Dobskie Lake
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Kostrzyn River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Podedworze Reservoir
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Polesie
Poland Por River Valley
Poland Tyszowce Site
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Szyszla River Valley
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Hungary Szigetköz
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Poland Bzura River Valley
Slovakia Pusté Úľany - Zeleneč
Slovakia Medzibodrožie
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Croatia Lika Karst Fields
Croatia Cetina River
Croatia Lower Posavina
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Italy Campo d'Ozieri
Italy Bassa Parmense
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Turkey Ziyaret Mountain and Ahlat Marshes
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Jordan Azraq
Netherlands Harderbroek
Russia (European) Tul'skiye Zaseki forest
Russia (European) Zalazniki, Beli, Urino and Leskovo area
Russia (European) Sources of Alimbet river and Aktykyl ridge
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ural and Kindeli rivers
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Russia (European) Dudarevskaya steppe
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Germany Kudensee
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Ekelmoor (moorlands near Sittensen)
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Luckauer Becken
Germany Oder lowlands Lebus-Ratzdorf
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Uckertal / Unteruckersee
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Ochsenfurter Gau
Germany Northern Danube valley and southern Riesalb
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Donauried
Germany Farmlands west and south of Plauer See
Germany Wetterau
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
Germany Lower Gersprenz lowlands incl. Reinheim pond
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Beppener Bruch
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Farmlands near Kusey (Altmark)
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Mouth of river Schwarze Elster
Germany Nordpfälzer Bergland and surroundings (Schalloden-bach to Bechenheim)
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
United Kingdom The Wash
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Lithuania Agricultural land near the Kalvarija settlement
Lithuania Exploited Sulinkiai peatbog
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Oswin site
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Lukow Forests
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Janów forests
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Roztocze
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Turek Site
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Mircze Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Slovenia Breginjski Stol
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Spain Campiña de Jerez - Lebrija y Marisma de Trebujena
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Jordan Burqu'
Serbia Pester
Denmark Borris Hede
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Spain Torrejón de Velasco - Secanos de Valdemoro
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Morocco Barrage al Mansour Ad-Dhabi
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Netherlands Westerwolde
Netherlands Oldambt
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Serbia Presevo valley - Rujen
Serbia Uvac
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duvanjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Glamočko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Kupreško polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Grahovo poljes (Pašića polje, Grahovsko polje, Marinkovci)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostarsko Blato

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Circus pygargus. Downloaded from on 01/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/07/2022.