LC
Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,900,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.9 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 54,500-92,200 breeding females, which equates to 109,000-184,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 41% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 266,000-449,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 100,000 to 499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is thought to be decreasing owing to over-use of pesticides and improved locust control, agricultural intensification and destruction of nests by farm machinery and loss of small mammal and bird prey species due to changing agricultural practices (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). In Europe the population size trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015). In the EU27 the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 23.7 years (three generations).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Croatia Cetina River
Croatia Lika Karst Fields
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Suursoo-Leidissoo
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Basses Corbières
France Bassigny
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Crau
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Gorges du Gardon
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Les Couzes Nord
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Minervois
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Petite Beauce
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine du Forez
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Val de Saône
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Zones agricoles de la Hardt
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Szigetköz
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Arezzo heathlands
Italy Bassa Parmense
Italy Colfiorito
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Venice lagoon
Latvia Liepaja lake
Lithuania Agricultural land near the Kalvarija settlement
Lithuania Birzulius-Stervas marshes complex
Lithuania Exploited Sulinkiai peatbog
Lithuania Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Tyruliai State Nature Reserve
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Portugal Campo Maior
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Estrela Mountains
Portugal Gerês mountains
Portugal Malcata mountains
Portugal Monforte plains
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Serras do Alvão e Marão
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Vila Fernando
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Serbia Pester
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Slovakia Puste Ulany-Zelenec
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Campiña de Jerez - Lebrija y Marisma de Trebujena
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain Cinca river rice fields and steppe area
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain La Limia
Spain La Serena
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Prat de Cabanes-Torreblanca
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Torrejón de Velasco - Secanos de Valdemoro
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Villafáfila
Turkey Balıkdamı
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Yüksekova
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Turiya river valley
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Circus pygargus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/08/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/08/2018.