Moluccan Eclectus Eclectus roratus


Taxonomic note
Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus has been split into Moluccan Eclectus E. roratus, Sumba Eclectus E. cornelia, Tanimbar Eclectus E. riedeli and Papuan Eclectus E. polychloros. Extensive museum work confirmed the four groups proposed as species on molecular data (Braun et al. 2017) do exceed the threshold of 7 under the Tobias criteria (Tobias et al. 2010) and are therefore accepted as species.

Taxonomic source(s)
Braun, M.P., Reinschmidt, M., Datzmann, T., Waugh, D., Zamora, R., Häbich, A., Neves, L., Gerlach, H., Arndt, T., Mettke-Hofmann, C., Sauer-Gürth, H. 2017. Influences of oceanic islands and the Pleistocene on the biogeography and evolution of two groups of Australasian parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes: Eclectus roratus, Trichoglossus haematodus complex). Rapid evolution and implications for taxonomy and conservation. European Journal of Ecology. 3(2): 47-66.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2019. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 4. Available at:

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 235,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 7300-51000 not applicable inferred 2019
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -

Population justification: Recent surveys and estimates indicate that the population of Eclectus roratus remains large. On Halmahera, the population just in the Aketajawe-Lolobata National Park was estimated at 4,463 individuals in 2012 (Bashari 2012), suggesting that the population across the whole island totals close to 10,000 individuals. The above population estimate was derived from Marsden (1998, 1999) population density estimates of 5.9 individuals/km2 on Halmahera, 7.4-13 inds/km2 on Seram and 1.9-13 inds/km2 on Buru. Whilst the estimate of the number of mature individuals displays a large range, it is likely that the population exceeds the threshold required for listing as threatened (<10,000 for Criterion C; <1000 for Criterion D).

Trend justification: It is likely that the population of E. roratus is displaying a decreasing trend as a result of hunting and trapping for wildlife trade (Cottee-Jones et al. 2014, Collar et al. 2019). A recent estimate suggests 810 (+/- 153) individuals are harvested annually for trade on the island of Obi alone and whilst this estimate is thought to be excessively high, the species is now considered uncommon on Obi and was being traded at twice the price of any other parrot species in the bird market hence, the population on Obi is in significant decline and considered Threatened (Mittermeier et al. 2013, Cottee-Jones et al. 2014). The populations on other islands, such as Bacan or Halamahera, is much less concerning and the species is considerably more common. As a result, it is reasonable to infer that there the population of E. roratus is declining but that the overall rate of decline is unlikely to approach the threshold for listing as threatened.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Savanna Moist suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Eclectus roratus. Downloaded from on 30/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/03/2023.