Mindanao Hornbill Penelopides affinis


Justification of Red List category
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been directly quantified, but the species is reported to be common in primary forest (del Hoyo et al. 2001) and the population is believed to be well over 10,000 birds (Poonswad et al., 2013)

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline locally owing to ongoing habitat destruction and hunting for food (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Distribution and population

This species is found on the island of Mindanao and adjacent smaller islands in the Philippines (Poonswad et al. 2013). Only 6,307 km2 of its habitat is considered to be optimal (Kinnaird & O’Brien (2007) in Poonswad et al. 2013).


The species is found in both primary and secondary rainforests and forest edges, up to elevations of 900m. It moves below the canopy and is seen in pairs or small groups of up to 12 individuals. It appears to be both sedentary and territorial (Poonswad et al. 2013). It feeds on both fruits, seeds and prey such as lizards and beetles (Poonswad et al. 2013). 
The pair breeds between April and May. The incubation period lasts 25 days and a nesting period of 47-54 days was observed in captivity when 3 eggs were laid (Poonswad et al. 2013).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES appendix II.


Text account compilers
Datta, A., Clark, J., Patil, I.

Datta, A., Patil, I., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Penelopides affinis. Downloaded from on 05/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/12/2023.