Mindanao Hornbill Penelopides affinis


Taxonomic note
Penelopides affinis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split as P. affinis and P. samarensis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 265,000 km2
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown - - -
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 7.75 years - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been directly quantified, but the species is reported to be common in primary forest (del Hoyo et al. 2001) and the population is believed to be well over 10,000 birds (Poonswad et al., 2013)

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline locally owing to ongoing habitat destruction and hunting for food (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Philippines extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines Mount Cabalantian - Mount Capoto-an complex
Philippines Biliran and Maripipi Island
Philippines Anonang-Lobi Range
Philippines Mount Nacolod
Philippines Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape
Philippines Mount Kambinlio and Mount Redondo
Philippines Siargao island
Philippines Bislig
Philippines Mount Agtuuganon and Mount Pasian
Philippines Mount Kampalili-Puting Bato
Philippines Mount Hamiguitan (Tumadgo peak)
Philippines Mount Kaluayan - Mount Kinabalian Complex
Philippines Mount Kitanglad
Philippines Mount Sinaka
Philippines Mount Apo
Philippines Mount Daguma
Philippines Mount Matutum
Philippines Mount Busa-Kiamba
Philippines Mount Malindang
Philippines Mount Timolan
Philippines Pasonanca watershed
Philippines Basilan Natural Biotic Area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Penelopides affinis. Downloaded from on 30/11/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/11/2023.