LC
Mindanao Hornbill Penelopides affinis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Penelopides affinis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split as P. affinis and P. samarensis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 265,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.75 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been directly quantified, but the species is reported to be common in primary forest (del Hoyo et al. 2001) and the population is believed to be well over 10,000 birds (Poonswad et al., 2013)

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline locally owing to ongoing habitat destruction and hunting for food (del Hoyo et al. 2001).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Philippines N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines Mount Kambinlio and Mount Redondo
Philippines Siargao island
Philippines Bislig
Philippines Mount Agtuuganon and Mount Pasian
Philippines Mount Sinaka
Philippines Mount Daguma
Philippines Mount Matutum
Philippines Mount Busa-Kiamba
Philippines Mount Timolan
Philippines Basilan Natural Biotic Area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Penelopides affinis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/12/2022.