Mindanao Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba crinigera


Justification of Red List Category
Forest clearance within this species's range must have led to a rapid reduction of its small, fragmented population; a trend which is set to continue. For these reasons it is classified as Vulnerable.

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. This equates to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss.

Distribution and population

Gallicolomba crinigera is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao and Basilan (Collar et al. 1999). There are records from c.35 localities, but since 1980 it has only been recorded from Rajah Sikatuna National Park on Bohol, Bislig on Mindanao and during recent surveys on Mount Hamiguitan and Mount Hilong-hilong in eastern Mindanao (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007). It always appears to have been rare throughout its range, although its aptitude for self-concealment may mean that it is under-recorded. Nevertheless, a substantial population decline is likely to have occurred.


It inhabits primary and secondary lowland and transitional dipterocarp forest below 750 m. It is highly terrestrial, favouring flat areas with only sparse undergrowth, particularly in dry, coastal areas. There is no evidence of seasonal movements, but a degree of nomadism or altitudinal displacement might be anticipated, perhaps linked to the rains (March-June), when it appears to breed.


The near-total loss of lowland forest throughout its range has caused its decline. In the late 1980s, forest cover was estimated at just 29% on Mindanao, and as little as 433 km2 of old-growth dipterocarp forest remained on Samar and Leyte, with most lowland forest leased to logging concessions and mining applications. Dinagat has lost practically all lowland forest as a result of illegal logging and, particularly, chromite and nickel surface-mining. Bohol is thought to retain only 4% forest cover, with tree-cutting, agricultural expansion and soil erosion all acting as threats to Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Forest at Bislig on Mindanao is being cleared under concession and re-planted with exotic trees for paper production. Elsewhere in eastern Mindanao where the largest old growth dipterocarp forest remain, illegal logging and mining persist at varying levels of intensity. In 2006, DENR-CARAGA Region confiscated 41,232 pieces or 12,998.27 cubic metres of illegally cut logs, amounting to around Php 18 million. Eliminating illegal logging remains difficult, with very limited capacity and logistics allotted by the government for monitoring and law enforcement. There are 51 mineral production sharing agreements (MPSA) at various levels of exploration and extraction approved since 1990 in eastern Mindanao alone. In the Tumadgo Peak IBA, almost 70% of unprotected dipterocarp and cloud forest is under MPSAs. Only 22% of the whole IBA, mostly high-elevation forest, is protected as wildlife sanctuary. Trapping for food and trade is a problem for all terrestrial birds in the Philippines.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded recently in a number of protected areas, e.g. Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Other areas, now afforded protection, where it formerly occurred (and may still occur) include Mt Malindang National Park, Mt Hilong-hilong (which includes a watershed reserve) and Mt Matutum Forest Reserve (a proposed national park). There is a stakeholder move to expand the coverage of the Mount Hamiguitan (Tumadgo Peak) Wildlife Sanctuary to include the lowland forests. A 7,000-hectare nesting site of the Philippine Eagle which includes Mindanao Bleeding Heart habitat was also recently declared by a local government as protected in Mount Hamiguitan (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys in remaining tracts of suitable habitat and areas with historical records, particularly on Samar and Leyte. Continue to advocate the effective protection of (possible) key sites. Propose remaining forests found to support the species for establishment as protected areas. Promote more effective enforcement of laws relating to hunting and trapping.


30 cm. Medium-sized, short-tailed, ground-dwelling pigeon. Large blood-red central patch to otherwise white throat and breast. Iridescent bronzy-green crown, nape, upper mantle and breast-sides (forming an incomplete breast-band). Dark chestnut rest of upperparts with broad greyish bands across wing-coverts. Deep buff belly becoming creamy-white on vent. Subspecies show slight variation in breast pattern. Voice Thought to be a repeated, cooing woo-oo. Hints Feeds on forest floor. Shy, tends to run from danger, typically only flying short distances when flushed.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Lowen, J., Taylor, J. & Symes, A.

Allen, D. & Ibanez, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Gallicolumba crinigera. Downloaded from on 16/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/01/2021.