EN
Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+3cd+4cd A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,240,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500 good estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population was previously thought likely to total fewer than 5,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300 mature individuals, based on estimates of c.5,000 individuals in Sumatra in the late 1980s (Silvius and Verheugt 1989), 100-150 individuals in Java (M. Silvius in litt. 2002), 10 birds in Malaysia and 20-40 in Cambodia. Recent estimates put the global population far lower, at around 2,200 birds, based on totals of c.1,600 in Sumatra (c.75 individuals in Aceh province, c.500 North Sumatra province, c.350 Riau province, c.100 Jambi province, c.500 South Sumatra province and c.75 Lampung province), c.500 individuals, but possibly fewer, on Java, and <100 birds on the mainland of South-East Asia (Iqbal et al. in prep). Large declines are being seen in South Sumatra with declines of 70% over 22 years from 1986 to 2008 (Iqbal et al. 2012). At least 100 birds were observed in recent survey on 2014 in Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park, Southeast Sulawesi (Iqbal pers.obs). This roughly equates to 1,500 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be declining very rapidly in line with intense hunting pressure at nesting colonies and the rapid loss and conversion of coastal habitat. Estimates for Sumatra, which holds the bulk of the global population, fell from 5,000 birds in 1986 (Silvius 1988, Silvius & Verheugt 1989), to 1,600 in 2009 (Iqbal et al. in prep). In Java, a wintering flock in east Madura of 170+ birds observed in 1996 had diminished to c.70 birds in 2006, which may be representative of an island-wide decline (B. van Balen in litt. 2013). Numbers in Malaysia fell from counts of over 100 individuals in 1984, to fewer than 10 birds in 2005, and only a single wild bird in 2010 (Malaysian Nature Society 2005, Li et al. 2006, DWNP 2010). The tiny Cambodian population may be relatively stable, but at the global scale very rapid ongoing declines of 50-79% in three generations (25 years) are estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant
Thailand V Extinct
Vietnam V Extinct

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Pesisir Timur Pantai Sumatera Utara
Indonesia Kerumutan
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara
Indonesia Siak Kecil
Indonesia Berbak
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi
Indonesia Sembilang
Indonesia Tanjung Selokan
Indonesia Tanjung Koyan
Indonesia Way Kambas
Indonesia Bukit Barisan Selatan
Indonesia Muara Cimanuk
Indonesia Muara Gembong - Tanjung Sedari
Indonesia Muara Angke
Indonesia Pulau Rambut
Indonesia Pulau Dua
Indonesia Segara Anakan - Nusa Kambangan
Indonesia Solo Delta
Indonesia Sumenep
Indonesia Bali Barat
Indonesia Taliwang
Indonesia Morowali
Indonesia Rawa Aopa Watumohai
Indonesia Danau Tempe
Indonesia Feruhumpenai - Matano
Malaysia Matang coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Malaysia South-west Johor coast
Indonesia Rawa Tulang Bawang
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Prek Toal
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Sre Ambel
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach
Cambodia Prek Taek Sap
Indonesia Tanjung Koyan-Selokan
Indonesia Sekaroh
Indonesia Panua
Indonesia Tanjung Panjang
Indonesia Lamiko-miko
Indonesia Pallime
Indonesia Bulurokeng
Indonesia Baito - Wolasi
Indonesia Ambuau
Thailand Bung Boraphet
Thailand Sanambin

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Hybridisation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Mycteria cinerea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2022.