VU
Military Macaw Ara militaris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2011 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,300,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2000-7000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -

Population justification: The population size was preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals, equating to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals. However more recent estimates suggest the population is now smaller than previously thought. With one estimate of 1,000-2,000 breeding pairs across the species's' range (C. Bonilla in litt. 2016) and another of a total of 5,000-10,000 individuals (G. Marateo, P. Grilli, M. Juarez and I. Berkunsky in litt. 2016). The population estimate is therefore estimated at 3,000-10,000 individuals, equating to 2,000-6,666 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species is suspected to be declining due to continued habitat loss and capture for domestic trade. A study which modelled the species's distribution in Mexico found that the potential area of distribution had decreased by 32% (Rivera-Ortiz et al. 2013).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bolivia Yungas Superiores de Apolobamba
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Amboró
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Carrasco
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Madidi
Colombia Cuchilla de San Lorenzo
Colombia Eco-parque Los Besotes
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de los Guácharos
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquídeas
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Macuira
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona
Colombia Valle del Río Frío
Colombia Serranía de los Churumbelos
Colombia Cerro Pintado (Serranía de Perijá)
Colombia Valle de San Salvador
Ecuador Cordillera de Huacamayos-San Isidro-Sierra Azul
Ecuador Cordillera de Kutukú
Ecuador Parque Nacional Sangay
Ecuador Parque Nacional Sumaco-Napo Galeras
Ecuador Parque Nacional Cayambe-Coca
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Cofán-Bermejo
Peru Alto Mayo
Peru Manu
Peru Moyobamba
Peru Santuario Nacional Tabaconas-Namballe
Peru Sur de la Cordillera de Colán
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare
Venezuela Parque Nacional El Ávila and surrounding areas
Venezuela Parque Nacional Guatopo
Venezuela Henri Pittier National Park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier IBA)
Venezuela Morrocoy National Park
Venezuela Parque Nacional Perijá
Venezuela Zona Protectora San Rafael de Guasare
Colombia Reserva El Oso
Argentina Itiyuro-Tuyunti
Argentina Parque Nacional Baritú
Argentina Río Seco
Mexico Cañón del Zopilote
Mexico Chamela-Cuitzmala
Mexico Coalcomán-Pómaro
Colombia Jardín de las Delicias
Mexico Cuenca Baja del Balsas
Mexico El Cielo
Mexico Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán
Mexico Presa Cajón de Peñas
Mexico Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra Gorda
Mexico Sótano del Barro
Mexico San Nicolás de los Montes
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Mexico Cañón del Sumidero
Bolivia Serranía de Aguarague
Peru Abra Patricia - Alto Mayo
Peru Cordillera de Colán
Mexico Sierra de Atoyac y Bosques de Niebla de la Costa Grande
Mexico Selvas Nayaritas
Mexico Cuenca del Río Yaqui
Mexico Papalutla, Sierra de Tecaballo
Mexico Carricitos-Cacaxtla-Río Piaxtla
Mexico Cerro El Viejo – Puerto Purificación
Mexico Corredor de Barrancas de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Mexico El Mineral de Nuestra Señora
Mexico Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla
Mexico Quebradas de Sinaloa, Nayarit y Durango
Mexico Selvas Secas de San Ignacio
Mexico Sierra de Petatlán
Colombia Estrella Fluvial Inírida

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 3600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Negligible declines No/Negligible Impact: 2
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ara militaris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2020.