VU
Military Macaw Ara militaris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2011 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,300,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2000-7000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -

Population justification: The population size was preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals, equating to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals. However more recent estimates suggest the population is now smaller than previously thought. With one estimate of 1,000-2,000 breeding pairs across the species's' range (C. Bonilla in litt. 2016) and another of a total of 5,000-10,000 individuals (G. Marateo, P. Grilli, M. Juarez and I. Berkunsky in litt. 2016). The population estimate is therefore estimated at 3,000-10,000 individuals, equating to 2,000-6,666 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species is suspected to be declining due to continued habitat loss and capture for domestic trade. A study which modelled the species's distribution in Mexico found that the potential area of distribution had decreased by 32% (Rivera-Ortiz et al. 2013).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Itiyuro-Tuyunti
Argentina Río Seco
Bolivia Serranía de Aguarague
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Amboró
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Carrasco
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Madidi
Bolivia Yungas Superiores de Apolobamba
Colombia Cerro Pintado (Serranía de Perijá)
Colombia Cuchilla de San Lorenzo
Colombia Eco-parque Los Besotes
Colombia Estrella Fluvial Inírida
Colombia Jardín de las Delicias
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de los Guácharos
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquídeas
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Macuira
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona
Colombia Reserva El Oso
Colombia Serranía de los Churumbelos
Colombia Valle de San Salvador
Colombia Valle del Río Frío
Ecuador Cordillera de Huacamayos-San Isidro-Sierra Azul
Ecuador Cordillera de Kutukú
Ecuador Parque Nacional Cayambe-Coca
Ecuador Parque Nacional Sangay
Ecuador Parque Nacional Sumaco-Napo Galeras
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Cofán-Bermejo
Mexico Cañón del Zopilote
Mexico Carricitos-Cacaxtla-Río Piaxtla
Mexico Cerro El Viejo – Puerto Purificación
Mexico Chamela-Cuitzmala
Mexico Coalcomán-Pómaro
Mexico Corredor de Barrancas de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Mexico Cuenca Baja del Balsas
Mexico El Cielo
Mexico El Mineral de Nuestra Señora
Mexico Papalutla, Sierra de Tecaballo
Mexico Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla
Mexico Presa Cajón de Peñas
Mexico Quebradas de Sinaloa, Nayarit y Durango
Mexico Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra Gorda
Mexico San Nicolás de los Montes
Mexico Selvas Nayaritas
Mexico Selvas Secas de San Ignacio
Mexico Sierra de Atoyac y Bosques de Niebla de la Costa Grande
Mexico Sierra de Petatlán
Mexico Sótano del Barro
Mexico Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán
Peru Abra Patricia - Alto Mayo
Peru Cordillera de Colán
Peru Manu
Peru Moyobamba
Venezuela Henri Pittier National Park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier IBA)
Venezuela Morrocoy National Park
Venezuela Parque Nacional El Ávila and surrounding areas
Venezuela Parque Nacional Guatopo
Venezuela Parque Nacional Perijá
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare
Venezuela Zona Protectora San Rafael de Guasare

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 3600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Negligible declines No/Negligible Impact: 2
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Ara militaris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019.