LC
Mew Gull Larus canus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,640,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 46,800,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,500,000-3,700,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 640,000-1,080,000 pairs, which equates to 1,280,000-2,160,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population sizes have been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species across its wide range (del Hoyo et al. 1996). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 29.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Palau U Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China U Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extinct Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Vietnam N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Lithuania Varduva River and Varduva Reservoir
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Hullo and Sviby bays
Estonia Hari Kurk strait
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Relict lakes of southern Saaremaa
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Pape
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Duvillaun Islands
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Carrowmore Lake
Ireland Inishkeeragh and Illancrone
Ireland Inishtrahull
Slovenia River Drava
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Zwanenwater & Pettemerduinen
Netherlands Dunes of Schoorl
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Hungary Öreg Lake of Tata
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Valaamski archipelago
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Rybinsk reservoir
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Danilovskoe marshes
Russia (European) Cheremshanski Bay of Kuybyshev Reservoir
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Loch Tarff and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mingulay and Berneray
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom Noss
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Pettigoe Plateau
United Kingdom Priest Island
United Kingdom Rathlin Island
United Kingdom Rum
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom Bluemill
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Correen Hills
United Kingdom Faray and Holm of Faray
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Horse Island
United Kingdom Little Cumbrae Island
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Tips of Corsemaul and Tom Mor
United Kingdom Tolsta Head, Lewis
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Po Delta
Poland Slowinski National Park
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Coast from Aggersund to Bygholm Vejle
Denmark Hjelm
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Eastern German Bight
Slovakia Slnava
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Skjernøy, South Skerries
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Sklinna
Norway Runde
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Sweden Tärnan – Riala
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schlei
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Terborg
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Alfsee
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Central Black Sea Coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Oman Al Batinah coast
Russia (European) Watershead of Kama and Porysh rivers
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Khayryuzova bay
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Pakri
Russia (European) Dunilovskoye bog
Russia (European) Varegovskoye bog
Russia (European) Peat pits in Volodarski and Balakhninski districts
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tarutino
Russia (Central Asian) Kartabyz and Lebedinoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ir valley
Russia (European) Podozerskie open pits
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Marsh southward of village Stepanovka near Okunevo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Bonne Anse
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Marshes near villages Frolishchi and Chistoye
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Navashinski district
Russia (Central Asian) Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bakanzhul lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Varnavinski zakaznik
Russia (European) Flood-plain of rivers Usta and Vaya in Urenski district
Russia (European) Forests, bogs and gathering of the Common Cranes near Voskresenskoye village
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Surskoi spur of Cheboksarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Elbanskye islands (Obsky reservoir)
Russia (Central Asian) Katai lake
Canada Sidney Channel
Canada Cowichan estuary
Canada Porlier Pass
Canada Little Qualicum Estuary to Nanoose Bay
Canada Baynes Sound
Canada Barkley Sound
Canada Mussel and Kynoch Inlet and Sheep Passage
Canada Quidi Vidi Lake
Canada Shallow Bay, Big Slough and Swan Lake
Canada Nares Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Italy Ticino river
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Lake Viverone
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Russia (European) Shalimovskoye bog
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Turkey Giresun Island
Turkey Kozlu coast
Turkey Yeşilırmak Delta
Turkey Şile Coast
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Nuuksio
Turkey Küre Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Russia (European) Ptich'ya magistral' area
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
USA Northern Montague Island
Denmark Jammerbugten
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Lower Saxonian North Sea off the East Frisian Islands
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Eastern part of German Bight (with Heligoland)
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Inishbofin, Inisdooey and Inisbeg
Ireland West Donegal coast
Ireland Inishmurray
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Lough Conn and Lough Cullin (including Moy valley)
Ireland Lough Mask
Ireland Lough Corrib
Ireland Inishsirrer, Inishmeane, Gola and Owey Islands
Ireland Lough Carra
Ireland Inishbofin and Inishshark (including Davillaun)
Romania Danube Delta
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Furesø and Farum Sø
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Belarus Braslav lakes
USA Prince William Sound
USA Susitna Flats
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Tautra & Svaet
Norway Nykvåg
Norway Nord-Fugløy
Denmark Bregentved and Gisselfeldt Lakes
Denmark Madum Sø
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Tjele Langsø
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Iceland Hrísey
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vaindloo island
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Estonia Karula
Estonia Koigi
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Misso
Sweden Sjaunja
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus canus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/07/2020.