Merlin Falco columbarius


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. In prep.. European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.

Derlink, M., Wernham, C., Bertoncelj, I., Kovács, A., Saurola, P., Duke, G., Movalli, P. and Vrezec, A. 2018. A review of raptor and owl monitoring activity across Europe: its implications for capacity building towards pan-European monitoring. Bird Study 65: S4-S20.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Keyel, E. R., Etterson, M. A., Niemi, G. J., Evers, D. C., DeSorbo, C. R., Hoffman, J. C., Nichols, J. W., Li, Y. & Nicoletti, F. 2020. Feather mercury increases with feeding at higher trophic levels in two species of migrant raptors, Merlin (Falco columbarius) and Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus). The Condor 122: 1-17.

Konrad, P.M., Shaffer, J.A., and Igl, L.D. 2020. The effects of management practices on grassland birds—Merlin (Falco columbarius). In: Johnson, D.H., Igl, L.D., Shaffer, J.A., and DeLong, J.P (eds), The effects of management practices on grassland birds: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1842.

Mebs, T. and Schmidt, D. 2006. Die Greifvögel Europas, Nordafrikas und Vorderasiens. Kosmos Verlag.

Millsap, B. A. & Allen, G. T. 2006. Effects of Falconry Harvest on Wild Raptor Populations in the United States: Theoretical Considerations and Management Recommendations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(5): 1392-1400.

Partners in Flight. 2020. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2020. Available at:

Warkentin, I. G., N. S. Sodhi, R. H. M. Espie, A. F. Poole, L. W. Oliphant, and P. C. James. 2020. Merlin (Falco columbarius), version 1.0. In: S. M. Billerman (ed.), Birds of the World, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

White, C.M., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2015. Merlin (Falco columbarius). In: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D.A. Christie & E. de Juana (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Falco columbarius. Downloaded from on 13/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 13/08/2022.