Merlin Falco columbarius


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 103,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 146,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250000-3200000 poor suspected 2020
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.39 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 20,000-41,700 pairs, which equates to 40,100-83,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms approximately 15% of the global range so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 267,000-556,000 mature individuals. Partners in Flight (2020) estimate the North American population at approximately 1,600,000 mature individuals, and the global population at 3,200,000 mature individuals. Given the wide range of the population estimates, the global population is placed in the band 250,000-3,200,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: In North America, this species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last five decades (on average 3.5% per year, equating to 56% over three generations; Partners in Flight 2020). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's global range. In Europe, the breeding population size is decreasing by at least 30% over 13 years (three generations [Bird et al. 2020]) (BirdLife International in prep.). Overall, the global population is suspected to be stable.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan V Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Panama N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Thailand V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Kaz'jany
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Ireland Wicklow Mountains
Ireland Moors west and north-west of Lough Derg, Brownhall bogs around Loughs Golagh and Dunragh (includes Pettigo Plateau)
Belgium Vallei van de Zwarte Beek
Belgium Ronde Put
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Vallée de la Dyle
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Budnyanski mire
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Champ de Tir du Poteau
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Chausey
France Havre de la Sienne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Petite Beauce
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Cap Gris-nez
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Bec de Crigne
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Marais de Brière
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Plaine du Forez
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Montagne de la Serre
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Pointe de Grave
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Domaine d'Orx
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Col de l'Escrinet
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Assynt Lochs
United Kingdom Ben Alder
United Kingdom Berwyn
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Caenlochan
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Glen Affric to Strathconon
United Kingdom Creag Meagaidh
United Kingdom Drumochter Hills
United Kingdom Elenydd - Mallaen
United Kingdom Glen Tanar
United Kingdom West Inverness-shire Lochs
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch Stack, Loch Nam Brac and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch Tarff and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Lochnagar
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom North Harris Mountains
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom Ronas Hill - North Roe and Tingon
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Pettigoe Plateau
United Kingdom Rum
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom West Burrafirth
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom Yorkshire Dale Moorlands
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Antrim Hills
United Kingdom Exmoor Coast and Heaths
United Kingdom Forest of Birse
United Kingdom Ladder Hills
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom Langholm - Newcastleton Hills
United Kingdom North Lowther Hills
United Kingdom South Pennine and Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Atholl/Glen Tilt
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Ticino river
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Alta-Kautokeino watercourse
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Ireland Connemara Bogs (south-east), including Roundstone Bog
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rhine flats Altlußheim-Mannheim
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Federseeried
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Rubina
Jamaica Yallahs
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Kaburlinskaya
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Dunika bog
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Pape
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Golia Island
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Portugal Castro Verde plains
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etang du Bagnas
France Marais de Manteyer
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Bonne Anse
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bahamas South Tarpum Bay
Bahamas Governor's Harbour
Bahamas Grog Pond
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Canada Beamer Conservation Area
Canada Holiday Beach / Big Creek CA
Canada Île Brion
Canada Tadoussac
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
St Lucia Castries and Dennery Waterworks Reserve and Marquis
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Puerto Rico (to USA) El Yunque
Puerto Rico (to USA) Cordillera Central
St Lucia Point Sables
St Lucia Iyanola and Grande Anses, Esperance and Fond D'ors
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
United Kingdom Migneint - Arenig - Dduallt
United Kingdom Lammermuirs
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Kazakhstan Alekseevskie steppe pine forests
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Virgin Islands (to USA) John Brewer's Bay
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
Puerto Rico (to USA) Acantilados del Noroeste
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Baar
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
St Kitts and Nevis Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Mândra wetlands
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Romania Râului Negru valley
United Kingdom Airds Moss and Muirkirk Uplands
United Kingdom Loch Shin and Nearby Lochs
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom South Pennine Moors
Morocco Oued Tahadart
Denmark Saltholm
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Vistula river mouth
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Bahamas Joulter Cays
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
Estonia Väinameri
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Sweden Kullaberg
Colombia Laguna de la Cocha
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquídeas

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Falco columbarius. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022.