EN
Meller's Duck Anas melleri



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered C2a(ii)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 261,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1300-3300 medium estimated 2002
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 2,000-5,000 individuals, roughly equating to 1,300-3,300 mature individuals (H. G. Young in litt. to Durrell Wildlife Madagascar Project 2002, via Wetlands International 2021).

Trend justification: While the population at the protected area of Lake Alaotra appears to be stable (Razafindrajao et al. 2017), the population overall is inferred to be declining owing to habitat loss and hunting. Kull (2012) estimated that between 1950-1994, 60% of wetlands were lost, roughly equating to a loss rate of 22% over 12 years (three generations [Bird et al. 2020]). As this species is also subject to intensive hunting, and is intolerant of human disturbance (H. G. Young in litt. 2012), the overall rate of decline is suspected to fall in the band 30-49%. As wetland habitats are lost to agriculture (Kull 2012), and both agricultural expansion and hunting pressure are linked to the expanding human population, these rates are suspected to continue into the future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Mauritius I Possibly Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Madagascar Lake Sahaka - Analabe NPA and extension
Madagascar Ankaizina wetlands
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Bezavona Classified Forest
Madagascar Lake Alaotra NPA
Madagascar Didy and Ivondro wetlands
Madagascar Sihanaka Forest
Madagascar North Pangalane
Madagascar Torotorofotsy Wetlands
Madagascar Lake Itasy
Madagascar Ranomafana National Park and extension
Madagascar Andringitra National Park
Madagascar Vondrozo Classified Forest NPA
Madagascar Kalambatritra Special Reserve
Mauritius Relict Forests of the Central Plateau
Madagascar Ambohitantely Special Reserve
Madagascar Ambositra-Vondrozo Corridor NPA (COFAV)
Madagascar Bidia - Bezavona Classified Forest
Madagascar NAP Corridor Ambositra-Vondrozo (COFAV) (part of)
Madagascar Ranomafana North
Madagascar MG test site 2009
Madagascar Ankeniheny Zahamena Corridor NPA (CAZ)
Madagascar Daraina (Loky - Manambato) SAPM
Madagascar Antrema NPA
Madagascar Bemanevika NPA / Tsaratanana massif (south-west)
Madagascar Vohibola Classified Forest NPA
Madagascar Itremo NPA
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Madagascar Mantadia National Park and Analamazaotra Special Reserve
Madagascar Mangerivola Special Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Anas platyrhynchos Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Hybridisation, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Channa striata Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anas melleri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022.