LC
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus



References

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.; Garcia, E. F. J. 2017. Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D. A.; de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, pp. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona, Spain.

Burgess, N.D.; Hirons, J.M. 1992. Creation and management of articficial nesting sites for wetland birds. Journal of Environmental Management 34(4): 285-295.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

European Commission. 2016. Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/wildbirds/threatened/l/larus_melanocephalus_en.htm. (Accessed: 03.11.2017).

Fasola, M.; Canova, L. 1996. Conservation of gull and tern colony sites in north-eastern Italy, an internationally important bird area. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 59-67.

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

James, P. C. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Croxall, J.P.; Evans, P.G.H.; Schreiber, R.W. (ed.), Status and conservation of the world's seabirds, pp. 371-375. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Milchev, B.; Kodjabashev, N.; Sivkov, Y.; Chobanov, D. 2004. Post-breeding season diet of the Mediterranean gull Larus melanocephalus at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Atlantic Seabirds 6(2): 65-78.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H.; Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus melanocephalus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2020.