LC
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 7,780,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 15,300,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 236000-656000 mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 10.1 years - - -

Population justification: The European population was recently estimated at 118,000-328,000 pairs, which equates to 236,000-656,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population in Europe is suspected to be decreasing by less than 25% in 30.3 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Egypt extant native
Finland extant vagrant
France extant native yes yes
Gambia extant vagrant
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes yes
Hungary extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant uncertain yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes yes
Kazakhstan extant vagrant
Kenya extant vagrant
Kuwait extant vagrant yes
Latvia extant vagrant
Lebanon extant native yes yes
Libya extant native yes
Malta extant native yes
Mauritania extant native yes
Monaco extant uncertain
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native yes
Netherlands extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant vagrant
Palestine extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Saudi Arabia extant vagrant yes
Senegal extant vagrant
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes yes
Spain extant native yes yes yes
Sudan extant vagrant yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes yes
Tunisia extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant vagrant yes
United Kingdom extant native yes yes
Western Sahara extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk
Türkiye Büyükçekmece Lake
Türkiye Seyfe Lake
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Camargue
France Basse vallée du Var
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Eschefeld ponds
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Heerter See
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Italy Venice lagoon
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Copeland Islands
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Spain Costa da Morte
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Türkiye Kulu Lake
Türkiye Bolluk Lake
Türkiye Gediz Delta
Türkiye Bosphorus
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia SÍňava
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Tarquinia saltpans
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Cuglieri coast
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Ammersee
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Lausitz mining areas
Germany Rohrsee near Bad Wurzach
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Black Sea
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Poland Turek Site
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia Strunjan saltpans
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Bahía de Málaga - Cerro Gordo
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf
Portugal Cabo Raso
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Montenegro Bojana Delta

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Larus melanocephalus. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/mediterranean-gull-larus-melanocephalus on 26/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 26/02/2024.