LC
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,780,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 15,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 236000-656000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: The European population was recently estimated at 118,000-328,000 pairs, which equates to 236,000-656,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population in Europe is suspected to be decreasing by less than 25% in 30.3 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq U Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Monaco U Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Westkust
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk
Turkey Büyükçekmece Lake
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Kulu Lake
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Evros delta
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Kythira island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Zoommeer
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Danilovskoe marshes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Ebro delta
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Domaine d'Orx
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse vallée du Var
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Saône
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom The Swale
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Tarquinia saltpans
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Sentina
Czechia Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Georgia Kolkheti
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Schlei
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Eschefeld ponds
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Heerter See
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Ptichi (Birds) Island
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Yashaltinskiye lakes
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Etang du Bagnas
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Crau
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Pointe de Grave
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Copeland Islands
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Netherlands Haringvliet
Spain Costa da Morte
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Turkey Bolluk Lake
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia SÍňava
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Cuglieri coast
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Lausitz mining areas
Germany Rohrsee near Bad Wurzach
Germany Renchniederung
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Black Sea
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Poland Turek Site
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Ribe Holme and meadows at Kongeåen
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia Strunjan saltpans
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Bahía de Málaga - Cerro Gordo
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf
Portugal Cabo Raso
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Tunisia Côtes de l'Île de Djerba

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus melanocephalus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020.