Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2018 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2016 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2015 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 24,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 24000000-33000000 medium estimated 2021
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 11,000,000-14,900,000 pairs, which equates to approximately 22,000,000-30,000,000 mature individuals and 33,000,000-45,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms 90% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 24,000,000-33,000,000 mature individuals and 37,000,000-50,000,000 individuals although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: New data collated from across Europe for the 2021 European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International in prep.) indicate that the species' rate of decline has slowed to c. 5-10% over the last decade. Of the five countries that hold c. 80% of the European breeding population, only one (Russia, with 10%, extending just east of the Ural Mountains into West Siberia) reports a significant decline since 2007. Norway (30%) reports stability (Kalas et al., 2014); the UK (19%) a small decline (Woodward et al., 2020); Iceland (12%) fluctuations but overall stability (Skarpheoinsson, 2018); and Sweden (9%) a small increase ( Decreases have been reported from Ukraine (T. Kuzmenko in litt., 2021) but the Ukrainian population comprises only a minor fraction of the European population. Furthermore, the latest 10-year Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme trend also suggests a stable or even slightly increasing European population of 6% from 2007-17 (acknowledging that this does not include the decline in Russia). As Europe holds almost the entire global breeding population, it is reasonable to assume that the European decline (5-10% over 10 years) also represents the global trend.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Yaselda
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Sweden Sandemar
Poland Pisz forest
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Vovk river valley
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de la Souche
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Spišská Magura
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Kaisergebirge
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Niers valley
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Ammersee
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Westerzgebirge around Carlsfeld
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Schlei
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Wet grasslands and forests around Burbach
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Aper Tief
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Dalum Wietmarscher swamp
Germany Spreewald
Germany Federseeried
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany High Westerwald around Driedorf
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Knüll
Germany Waldeck upland
Germany Kellerwald
Germany Hessian Rothaar mountains
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Feldberg in the Black Forest
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Servač
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
France Montagne de la Serre
France Pointe de Grave
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Freiwald
Sweden Lake Lim
Sweden Bog of Komosse
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Middagsfjället – Dörrshöjden
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Bosnia and Herzegovina Dabarsko and Fatničko Karstic Fields
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Germany Dollart
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Mönchbruch of Mörfelden and Rüsselsheim and heath extensions (GG)
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Oberwesterwald, incl. Westerwald lake area and Neunkhausener Plateau
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Germany Warder See
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Kudensee
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Luxembourg Valley of the Ernze Blanche
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Bosnia and Herzegovina Popovo polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duvanjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostarsko Blato
Bosnia and Herzegovina Glamočko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Kupreško polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Lušci polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Nevesinjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Grahovo poljes (Pašića polje, Grahovsko polje, Marinkovci)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Petrovac poljes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Podrašničko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vukovsko-Ravanjsko polje

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland marginal resident
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anthus pratensis. Downloaded from on 25/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/09/2022.