EN
Maui Alauahio Paroreomyza montana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(ii,iii,v) B1ab(ii,iii,v); D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii)
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 460 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000-49999 good estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.7 - - -

Population justification: In 1980, the early 1990s and 1997, the total population was estimated at c.35,000 birds, including fewer than 8,550 breeding pairs, therefore giving a maximum estimate of 17,100 mature individuals. In 2011, 52,729 and 57,921 individuals were estimated within 36.9 km2 of habitat on the northeastern slope of east Maui (Brinck et al. 2012). Surveys conducted to calculate this estimate excluded 13.7 km2 of known habitat and so overall numbers may be higher than this (Brinck et al. 2012). This is equivalent to roughly 35,153 - 38,614 mature individuals, and so is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to have declined over the past ten years owing to the degradation of koa forest in South Haleakala by feral goats (S. Fretz, R. Camp, E. Vanderwerf, M. Gorresen and B. Woodworth in litt. 2003) and a fire in PoliPoli State Park in 2007, which is thought to have impacted the local population (H. Mounce in litt. 2007). The overall rate of decline has not been estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
USA Haleakala

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Altitude 900 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 1480 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Paroreomyza montana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2019.