Masked Saltator Saltator cinctus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 49 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 754,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 30000 poor estimated 2020
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2014-2024
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 1-9 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 1-9 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (years) 3.3 - - -

Population justification: The species is rare and patchily distributed (Stotz et al. 1996). In Colombia, it was found to occur at an average density of 6 individuals/km2, equating to 4 mature individuals/km2, but it can reach considerably higher densities in mature stands of Podocarpus (Renjifo et al. 2014). Assuming that throughout its range the species occurs at a density of 4 mature individuals/km2, and further assuming that about 10% of the mapped range are occupied, the global population would number at least 30,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population trend has not been estimated directly. Forest loss within the range has been low over the last ten years (<2%; Global Forest Watch 2020). However, given the species’s potentially strong association with the selectively logged Podocarpus (Renjifo 1991), it is conceivable that habitat degradation is proceeding at a more rapid pace than forest loss alone. Particularly in the northernmost part of the range, suitable habitat may be lost at a higher rate (M. E. Echeverry-Galvis in litt. 2020). The overall population decline is here tentatively placed in the band 1-9% over ten years.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia extant native yes
Ecuador extant native yes
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Bosques del Oriente de Risaralda
Ecuador Bosque Protector Colambo-Yacuri
Ecuador Cordillera de Huacamayos-San Isidro-Sierra Azul
Ecuador Cordillera de Kutukú
Ecuador Cordillera del Cóndor
Ecuador Montañas de Zapote-Najda
Ecuador Tapichalaca Reserve (Reserva Tapichalaca IBA)
Peru Cerro Chinguela
Peru Huamba
Peru La Cocha
Colombia Cuenca del Río Toche

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1700 - 3100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Saltator cinctus. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023.