NT
Markham's Storm-petrel Hydrobates markhami



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Hydrobates markhami (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Oceanodroma.

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened B2ab(iii,v)
2018 Data Deficient
2016 Data Deficient
2012 Data Deficient
2010 Data Deficient
2008 Data Deficient
2004 Data Deficient
2000 Data Deficient
1996 Data Deficient
1994 Data Deficient
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,000,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-120000 medium estimated 2019
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16 - - -

Population justification: A minimum of 2,305 pairs were present on the Paracas peninsula in 1992 (Tobias et al. 2006). Following the recent discovery of several large breeding colonies in the Atacama Desert (Schmitt et al. 2015, Barros et al. 2019), the global population was estimated to number c.50,000-60,000 breeding pairs (Schmitt et al. 2015, Barros et al. 2019, Medrano et al. 2019). This equates to 100,000-120,000 mature individuals, or 150,000-180,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification: The population trend of Markham’s Storm-petrel has not been estimated directly. However, it has been suggested that each year, about 20,000 fledglings of the colonies in the Atacama Desert die after light-induced grounding, which potentially represent about 1/3 of the entire cohort (Barros et al. 2019, F. Medrano in litt. 2019). Based on this, it is assumed that the population is in decline. The rate of decline cannot be assessed based on the available information though, as population decline is measured as the decline in mature individuals. Juvenile seabirds generally have a high mortality for various reasons, which is dependent on age, sex and environmental parameters (Fay et al. 2015). It is not clear how many juveniles of Markham’s Storm-petrel die of natural causes each year, or if the reduced population density may even enhance the survival of the remaining fledglings, as has been shown in other seabirds (Fay et al. 2015). As such, it is unclear to which extent the light-induced mortality of juveniles affects the recruitment and the population size of Markham’s Storm-petrels.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Chile N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
French Polynesia V Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Peru Humedales de Chimbote
Peru Isla Pachacámac
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas
Peru Río Tambo y Lagunas de Mejía
Costa Rica Cocos Island
Chile Arica Pelágica

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot major breeding
Desert Temperate major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Negligible declines No/Negligible Impact: 2
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Hydrobates markhami. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2020.